Consultation In Schools

  1. In Chapter 7 there are several reasons for poor school achievement. Please discuss two of these reasons and how to address these reasons using consultative and collaborative means. Be sure to cite two outside professional resources to support your ideas.
  2. Chapter 9 discusses consultation at a system-level. There may be a time during your career you will need to assist with this. Please pick one system-level change from the chapter and discuss how you would be a part of the organization and implementation of this change.

-Must be APA format

-must be at least  2 pages

Thomas J. Kampwirth Kristin M. Powers

Collaborative Consultation in the Schools

Effective Practices for Students with Learning and Behavior Problems




Collaborative Consultation in the Schools



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Collaborative Consultation in the Schools

Effective Practices for Students with Learning and Behavior Problems

F i f t h E d i t i o n

Thomas J. Kampwirth Professor Emeritus, California State University, Long Beach

Kristin M. Powers California State University, Long Beach

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Kampwirth, Thomas J. Collaborative consultation in the schools : effective practices for students with learning and behavior problems /

Thomas J. Kampwirth, Professor Emeritus, California State University, Long Beach, Kristin M. Powers, California State University, Long Beach.—Fifth edition.

pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-13-382713-2 (alk. paper) — ISBN 0-13-382713-5 (alk. paper) 1. Educational counseling—United States. 2. Group work in education—United States. 3. Learning disabled

children—Services for—United States. 4. Problem children—Services for—United States. 5. School management and organization—United States. I. Powers, Kristin M. II. Title.

LB1027.5.K285 2016 371.4’220973—dc23


10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1



I dedicate this text to my wife Frieda; our children, Kathy, Tom, and Ed; and our grandchildren, Alyssa, Shane, Conor, Elise, and Addie Lu,

and our great grandson, Asher.


I dedicate this text to my husband, Mark, and our children Jordan, Cassidy, and Felix.




ABouT ThE AuThorS

Thomas J. Kampwirth is Professor Emeritus in the Advanced Studies in Education and Counseling Department at California State University, Long Beach. He taught in the areas of special education and school psychology from 1971 through 2004 and was coordinator of the school psychology program for 25 years. From 1980 through 2009 he was a consulting school psychologist for the special education programs operated by the Orange County Department of Education. Dr. Kampwirth served as a special education teacher and school psychologist in numerous districts in Illinois, Arizona, and California. His research interests include aptitude– treatment interactions and consultation processes. He received his doctorate in school psychol- ogy from the University of Illinois in 1968. In 2003, he was given the Lifetime Achievement Award by the National Association of School Psychologists.

Kristin M. Powers is Professor of School Psychology and Director of the Community Clinic for Counseling and Educational Services at California State University, Long Beach. Her research on transition planning, instructional consultation, and disproportional representation in special e ducation has been published in state and national journals. She is Co-Project Director of two Office of Special Education Program (OSEP) grants focused on advanced training in instruc- tional consultation and multi-tiered systems of support. She is a founding board member of the Consortium to Promote School Psychology in Vietnam (CASP-V). She worked as a school p sychologist and administrative assistant for the Long Beach Unified School District (LBUSD). She received her doctorate in educational psychology from the University of Minnesota school psychology program in 1998.





Collaborative Consultation in the Schools: Effective Practices for Students with Learning and Behavior Problems was written with two different audiences in mind: university students and practitioners in the schools. University students are likely to be doing advanced work in special education, school psychology, school counseling, or educational administration. Practitioners in schools are currently employed in these professions and are being asked increasingly to help oth- ers, usually teachers or parents, solve learning and behavior problems. In this book, we present the consultation process as a collaborative, problem-solving endeavor designed to assist consult- ees in their work with students who have, or are at risk for, behavioral or learning problems. A key focus is on consultants bridging the gap between research and practice in schools. Whether it is designing an intensive academic intervention, assisting a teacher in improving his classroom management, or developing a transition plan for a student with a low incidence disability, the consultant should strive to initiate evidence-based practices whenever possible. A second key theme to this consultation text is providing interventions that are proportional to the students’ needs. Through data-based system change, schools are redistributing their resources along multi- tiered systems of support (MTSSs), so those in greatest need receive the most intensive help. MTSS (which includes response to intervention [RtI] and schoolwide positive behavior support [SWPBS]) requires collaborative consultation to be successful.

Consultation as a service delivery system in the public schools has increased in popularity since the late 1990s. Prior to 1990, most special and general educators were still expected to deal on their own with whatever problems they experienced in their teaching or management of chil- dren; indeed, those who sought help may have been regarded as unable to deal with the job of teaching and subtly, or overtly, rejected by their peers or supervisors. To a lesser extent, this iso- lationism continues today in our schools and can be a formidable barrier for school consultants. Good interpersonal, problem-solving, and communication skills; the building of trust; and a change in the school culture to be more collaborative can reduce these barriers, as we discuss at length in this text. The goal of collaborative consultation is synergism, wherein the dyad or team produce better results than if each person works in isolation. Adhering to the problem-solving process, including data-based goal setting and evaluation, is critical to achieving synergism.

Since the Education for all Handicapped Children Act of 1977, teacher assistance teams, student study teams, transition planning teams, and individualized education programming teams and a host of other formal and semiformal team arrangements have been developed to meet the needs of students who require some degree of assistance to be successful in school. Indeed, it would be surprising to find a school today that did not depend on its student study team to dis- cuss and develop interventions for students at risk of school failure. These team interactions also meet the needs of parents in their efforts to understand and support their children.

Beyond what takes place in team meetings is a real need for everyday assistance for both special education teachers, who are providing direct teaching services to students with disabili- ties, and general educators, who are charged with teaching students with disabilities in addition to a large cadre of other vulnerable and marginalized students. This text is primarily devoted to helping those who assist special and general educators and support services personnel to deal with the everyday, ongoing challenges presented by underperforming students. Most school per- sonnel are involved in problem-solving student problems case by case, whether formally or informally. Some believe that greater efficiencies and a larger impact can be made by changing how the school operates. MTSSs can happen in a school only when school personnel have learned the value of collaborative problem solving as opposed to isolated work. In an MTSS school, school personnel have a shared sense of responsibility to the students and frequently examine data and discuss how to improve student outcomes. Job descriptions and expectations have changed accordingly. Special education teachers are increasingly leaving their resource room and special day classes to consult with general education teachers. School psychologists are embracing more intervention-based assessments and are taking increased responsibility for assisting in the development and evaluation of appropriate interventions. School counselors are more likely to see if they can be of assistance with some referrals through consultation with teachers and parents in conjunction with individual or group counseling efforts. Mentor teachers,




viii Preface

vice principals, and others are also seeing their roles expand to include consultation, particularly when engaged in school reform. We hope that the combination of scientifically based practices, practical advice, and case studies presented in this text will assist the reader in providing effec- tive consultation to colleagues and families.

New to this editioN

The fifth edition has been updated significantly. It includes a new chapter (Chapter 8) on transi- tion planning for students with disabilities preparing for adulthood (this chapter is co-authored by Edwin Achola). The main thrust of this revision has been to update the evidence-based prac- tices based on current research and to add video clips to the text and activities to provide addi- tional details and dimensions to the concepts. We also replaced the term response to intervention (RtI) with the more encompassing term multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS) in order to emphasize the parallels between RtI and school-wide positive behaviour support (SWPBS). The fifth edition also provides more information on serving students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including a detailed case-study in Chapter 10. Finally, we provide more coverage on how technology can be used in consultation and professional development.

Some additional updates include the following:

• A description and possible implications of the Common Core State Standards for consult- ants (Chapters 1 and 7)

• More information on working with paraprofessionals (Chapter 2) • A list of do’s and don’ts in using electronic communications in consultation (Chapter 4) • Tips for providing legal testimony (Chapter 5) • Information and activities on the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) and

the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA; Chapter 5) • Changes included in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

Disorders (Chapter 6) • The theory and research on microaggressions experienced by cultural and language minor-

ities (Chapter 4) • An expanded treatment fidelity section has been included, along with a treatment fidelity

assessment observation form (Chapter 3) • An effective instruction observation/feedback form for school-based consultants (Chapter 7)

We think one of the most valuable additions to the text has been the insertion of video clips. Short, 2- to 3-minute video clips introduce the reader to important concepts. Longer clips are contained in the activities. Course instructors or staff members involved in professional devel- opment can show these clips and engage in highly nuanced, relevant discussions. Thus, the fifth edition of Collaborative Consultation in the Schools is an interactive text that prepares students for the demands of school-based consultation like no other text before. In addition, we examined the Educational Testing Services (ETS) study companions for (a) School Psychology, (b) Professional School Counselor, (c) Special Education: Core Knowledge, (d) Special Education: Core Knowledge Mild to Moderate Applications, and (e) Educational Leadership: Administration and Supervision to confirm that the content of this text, including its activities, will support students in acquiring knowledge of many of the topics covered by these exams.

22 Chapter 2 • Consultation Models and Professional Practices

To view a video of this type of negative and positive reinforcement, also known as coer- cive pain control (Rhode & Jensen, 2010) see watch?v=OxdtMVww2q0. Because student’s noncompliance or work avoidance is negatively reinforced when teachers remove their demands, Rhode and Jensen (2010) recommend that teachers use precision commands in which compliance is immediately reinforced, and the stu- dent receives a punishment after failing to comply with a request that has been repeated once. Punishment is the delivery of some aversive stimulus or removal of a desired stimulus in order to decrease a behavior (Alberto & Troutman, 2013). While punishment can be effective, it should never be humiliating or painful. Reinforcing positive and competing behaviors (i.e., work completion or compliance) is often both more productive and humane than punishing undesired behaviors.

In some cases, an action designed to be reinforcing, like delivering verbal praise, could be felt as a punishment (the student does not want any attention called to her). This case raises the question, “How does one know whether an adult or peer response to a targeted behavior is reinforcing or punishing?” The answer lies only in a careful study of the data. Is the targeted behavior decreasing as a function of the consequences it elicits? If so, then these consequences are probably best interpreted as aversive or punishing. Are behaviors increasing as a result of the responses that follow these behaviors? If so, then the consequences are probably positively reinforcing the behavior.

Activity 2.3

Watch the tutorial on how to conduct an antecedent, behavior, and consequence (ABC) analysis at watch?v=GxcIM8klHuY and complete the

ABC analysis found on the video clip for the target behavior: yelling in the classroom.

Activity 2.4

A teacher tells you that she is concerned about a student who is anxious. What else do you, as a behaviorally oriented consultant, want to know about the child? What are the behaviors

of anxiety? Which can be treated, the anxiety or the behaviors? How might a traditional behaviorist differ from a cognitively oriented behaviorist in his approach to this problem?

BAsic Beliefs undeRlying A BehAvioRAl APPRoAch to consultAtion The behavioral tradition focuses on behaviors that are either observable to the teacher or parent or reportable by the student; it contrasts with the medical-model approach, which focuses on pathology or sickness within the child. Hypothetical constructs and pseudo-explanatory con- cepts and labels, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder, or others listed in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013), are not regarded as constructive except for purposes of communication among professional staff members and parents. The behaviorist does not say that a student is out of her seat and running around the room because she has ADHD. Rather, the behaviorist is inclined to say that the student engages in an excessive amount of out-of-seat behavior (operationally defined and usually determined in relation to a norm for a given class- room or other setting) and will help to develop an intervention to change the behavior by changing either the antecedent (adjust difficulty of seatwork, move desk to quiet corner, etc.) and/or consequence events (provide short breaks contingent on work completion, implement a self-monitoring program with a highly desired reward for improved on-task behavior, etc.). To learn if the intervention has been successful, a behaviorist charts the occurrence and dura- tion of out-of-seat behavior or some other targeted behavior. The behaviorist’s goal is to reduce the frequency of symptoms because, as the behaviorist believes, the symptom is the disease (Ullmann & Krasner, 1965).

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We would like to acknowledge Edwin Achola’s contributions to Chapter 8. As a co-author of this chapter, his insights and expertise on transition planning are essential to the final product. We would also like to thank the following reviewers of the fifth edition: John D. Hall, Arkansas State University, Cindy Topdemir, University of South Florida, Elena Zaretsky, University of Massachusetts, Boston.



Brief Contents

Chapter 1 Overview of School-Based Consultation 1

Chapter 2 Consultation Models and Professional Practices 19

Chapter 3 Problem-Solving Consultation in a Multi-Tiered System of Support 50

Chapter 4 Communication and Interpersonal Skills 83

Chapter 5 Legal and Ethical Issues in School Consultation 124

Chapter 6 Consulting About Students with Social, Emotional, and/or Behavioral Problems 137

Chapter 7 Consulting About Students with Academic Skill Problems 173

Chapter 8 Transition Planning 198

Chapter 9 Systems-Level Consultation: The Organization as the Target of Change 214

Chapter 10 Case Studies in Collaborative Consultation 236

Index 251




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chapter 1 overview of school-BAsed coNsultAtioN 1 Learning Outcomes 1

Consultation and Collaboration: Definitions, Distinctions, and Characteristics 1

Collaborative Consultation as an Indirect Service 2

Defining Characteristics and Expectations of Collaborative Consultation 5

The Triadic Nature of Consultation 7

The Role of Process and Content Expertise in Consultation 7

Consultation at Different Levels of Problem Severity 8

Recent Changes in Education Affecting School Consultation 9

Common Core Standards 9

No Child Left Behind 10

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 10

Response to Intervention/Multi-Tiered System of Services 13

The Present Status of Collaborative Consultation in Schools 14

Research on the Effectiveness of School Consultation 15 Summary    16    •    References    17

chapter 2 coNsultAtioN models ANd ProfessioNAl PrActices 19 Learning Outcomes 19

A Rationale for a Model 19

Two Theoretical Traditions 20

Behavioral Paradigm 20

Mental Health Paradigm 25

Functional Consultation Models 29

Conjoint Behavioral Consultation 29

Instructional Consultation 30

Ecobehavioral Consultation 31

Consultee-Centered Consultation 31

Consultation Configurations and Settings 32

Beginning Teacher Support Consultation 32

Professional Learning Communities 33

Collaborating with Paraprofessionals 34

Coteaching for Inclusion 34

Individualized Education Program Team 35

Student Study Teams 37

Roles, Skills, and Activities of School-Based Consultants 44 Summary    47    •    References    47

chapter 3 ProBlem-solviNg coNsultAtioN iN A multi-tiered system of suPPort 50 Learning Outcomes 50




Steps to Follow in the Consultation Process 51

Establish Rapport 52

Problem Identification 52

Problem Analysis 54

Intervention Development and Implementation 56

Evaluate the Effectiveness of the Interventions and Recycle If Necessary 58

Multi-Tiered System of Support 58

Tier 1: Universal Prevention 59

Tier 2: Targeted Intervention 61

Tier 3: Intensive Interventions 68

Assessment 69

Planning or Modifying Interventions 72

Treatment Integrity 74

Treatment Acceptability 75

Performance Feedback 75

Assessing Treatment Integrity 77 Summary    79    •    References    80

chapter 4 commuNicAtioN ANd iNterPersoNAl skills 83 Learning Outcomes 83

Communication Skills 84

Attending 84

Active (Reflective) Listening 84

Reframing 85

Empathy 86

Keeping a Goal Orientation 86

Asking Questions 88

Potential Difficulties in Communication 90

Evaluating Your Communication Skills 91

Communication Technologies 92

Interpersonal Skills 93

Forging Positive Relationships 94

Conveying Competence and Confidence 94

Projecting the Idea That the Situation Is Going to Improve 95

Following through with Enthusiasm 95

Developing and Maintaining Trust 96

Treating Consultees as Adults 96

Power in the Consultative Relationship 96

Referent Power 97

Expert Power 97

Informational Power 98

The Dominance Debate 99

Resistance 100

Types of Resistance 101

Causes of Resistance 102

Overcoming Resistance 107

xii Contents



Gaining and Delivering Information 111

The Interview 111

Taking Notes and Keeping Track 113

Delivering Feedback 113

Consulting with Parents and Families 114

Resistance by Parent-Consultees 117

Consultation in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Settings 117 Summary    121    •    References    121

Chapter 5 LegaL and ethiCaL issues in sChooL ConsuLtation 124 Learning Outcomes 124

The Purpose, Sources, and Importance of Ethical Practice 124

Principles of Ethical Behavior 125

Principle 1: Competence 125

Principle 2: Protecting the Welfare of Clients 125

Principle 3: Maintaining Confidentiality 126

Principle 4: Social and Moral Responsibility 127

Principle 5: Integrity in Professional Relationships 127

Codes of Ethics and Standards for Professional Practice 127

Legal Issues 128

Providing Legal Testimony 129

The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act 129

A Problem-Solving Model for Dealing with Legal and Ethical Issues 130

An Example 130

Areas of Potential Ethical Conflict 133

Ethical Competencies, Confrontations, and Advocacy 134 Summary    135    •    Four Scenarios for Additional Practice in Ethical  Problem Solving    135    •    References    136

Chapter 6 ConsuLting about students with soCiaL, emotionaL, and/or behavioraL ProbLems 137 Learning Outcomes 137

Introduction to Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Problems 137

Behavior Problems: Reasons and Suggested Interventions 139

Family and Community 139

Classroom and Schools 141

Within-Child Reasons for Behavior Problems 143

Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act 145

Autism Spectrum Disorder 146

Emotional Disturbance 148

Traumatic Brain Injury 149

Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity 149

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 149

IDEA versus the DSM-V 150

IDEA Mandates on Assessment, Intervention, and Discipline of Students with Behavior Problems 151

Contents xiii



Functional Behavioral Assessment and Analysis of Behavior 151

Functional Behavioral Assessment 151

Review of Records 153

Interviews 153

Rating Scales 157

Classroom Observations 158

Applied Behavior Analysis 159

Intervention Evaluation 161

Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support 162

Universal Behavioral Interventions 162

Targeted Behavioral Interventions 165

Intensive Behavior Interventions 168 Summary    169    •    References    169

Chapter 7 Consulting about students with aCademiC skill Problems 173 Learning Outcomes 173

Introduction 173

Universal Effective Instruction (Tier 1) 175

Qualities of Effective Instruction 175

Effective Instruction for English Language Learners 177

Effective Instruction for Culturally Diverse and Low Income Students 179

High-Poverty, High-Performing Schools and RtI/MTSS 180

High Expectations and Differentiated Instruction 180

Interventions to Improve Study Skills and Learning Strategies 181

Improving Motivation 182

Targeted Interventions for Academic Problems (Tier 2) 185

Intensive Interventions for Academic Problems (Tier 3) 187

Interventions for Intellectual Disabilities and Language Delays 187

Supporting Students with Health and Sensory Impairments 188

Interventions for Students with ADHD 189

Supporting Students with Mental Health and Behavioral Disturbances 190

Identification and Interventions for Students with Learning Disabilities 191

Data-Based Special Education Eligibility Assessment 192 Summary    195    •    References    195

Chapter 8 transition Planning 198 Learning Outcomes 198

Postsecondary Outcomes for Students with Disabilities 198

Legal Mandates 200

Transition Planning with Students and Families 202

Maximizing the Participation of Students and Families 202

The Transition Planning Process 204

Appropriate Transition Assessments 204

xiv Contents



Development of Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance 205

Measurable Postsecondary and Annual Goals 205

Transition Services 206

Transition Outcomes 207

Collaborative Consultation with Stakeholders 208

Consultation with School Personnel 208

Consultation with Community Members 208

Collaborative Consultation Transition Planning in Action 209 Summary    211    •    References    211

chapter 9 systems-level coNsultAtioN: the orgANizAtioN As the tArget of chANge 214 Learning Outcomes 214

Why Systems-Level Consultation? 215

Macrosystemic Influences on School Innovation 215

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