Anthropomorphism Chart


Now that you have read about anthropomorphism, completing the Anthropomorphism Chart will help you dissect characteristics that are often attributed to some animals in children’s literature.


  1. Before you watch the 2006 movie titled Charlotte’s Web based on E.B. White’s story by the same name, complete the Anthropomorphism Chart  (Links to an external site.)to help you dissect and characterize the types of human qualities humans tend to give to non-human creatures, including qualities that may represent classes of people, groups of people and/or society issues present in society.
  2. Next, read the following thoughts:

“According to Jack David Zipes in his book Aesop’s Fables, ‘the purpose of most fable writers has been to address a specific social problem of their times and to draw a universal lesson that may be applicable in other situations and epochs. What White makes us aware of in Charlotte’s Web is how self-involved humans can be and how blind they often are to the wonders of the world around them.

“As America began to prosper after the war (WWII), many people became more and more concerned with material wealth. The Beatniks – and the beat generation – was an anti-materialist literary movement which reached its height in the 1950s. Written after the Second World War and as American manufacturing and construction was on the rise, Charlotte’s Web also reacts against materialism and reminds us, during this time of American economic gain, of the simple yet astonishing pleasures in life. White’s use of anthropomorphic animals in Charlotte’s Web not only fulfills a key criteria of the fable tradition but also provides us with the opportunity to laugh at human folly — specifically, by supplying us with examples of human behavior to be avoided and not emulated.

“In Charlotte’s Web, White illustrates the power of love and creativity in contrast with material success and status. After all, a runt pig (who promises nothing when it is born) becomes the object of fame and success essentially because of the love bestowed on him by Fern and Charlotte. Although the humans in the novel think they have been blessed with an extraordinary pig, what they witness is extraordinary love between Charlotte and Wilbur, and that itself is the miracle of the story” (“Charlotte’s Web.” Grade Saver Study Guide.)

3. View the 2006 SWANK movie titled Charlotte’s Web (Links to an external site.) based on E.B. White’s story by the same name, taking note (on your chart) for how anthropomorphism is used in characters to “address a specific social problem of that time (early 1950s) and to draw a universal lesson that may be applicable in other situations and epochs” (Zipes). Identify the social problem and the universal lesson that are being characterized through White’s story. (If you have trouble accessing the 2006 Charlotte’s Web movie through SWANK, refer to the SWANK Guidelines. (Links to an external site.))

4. Submit your completed chart as a docx file.

To submit your work: Click the Submit Assignment button (top right of screen).


This assignment is worth up to 10 points toward your final grade. Your chart needs to show thoughtful and complete work. Thinking and writing about human qualities humans tend to give to non-human creatures and about how social problems and universal lessons are represented through those qualities will help prepare you for the online discussion writing you will complete next.

Anthropomorphism Chart


Before watching the 2006 movie Charlotte’s Web, describe human qualities that are often given to the following non-human creatures.



What characteristics do people and society attribute to this animal?


EXAMPLE: People and society tend to think that crows are harmful to crops; that they carry disease, are pesky, annoying, unclean, vermin, parasitic, and that they are un-necessary and need to be destroyed.



What characteristics do people and society attribute to this creature?






What characteristics do people and society attribute to this animal?








What characteristics do people and society attribute to this animal?









What characteristics do people and society attribute to this animal?









What characteristics do people and society attribute to this animal?




Next, write down ideas that describe how these animals relate to one another:











While watching/after watching the 2006 movie titled Charlotte’s Web:


……take notes for how anthropomorphism is used in characters to “address a specific social problem of that time (early 1950s) and to draw a universal lesson that may be applicable in other situations and epochs” (Zipes). Identify the social problem and the universal lesson that are being characterized through White’s story.
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Proposal Argument With Research



Integrating Evidence from Research Name:



A good way to think about integrating any kind of research into your own paper is the analogy of planting a tree (from Mauk and Metz, The Composition of Everyday Life). When you plant a tree, you don’t just set the tree down on top of the grass and walk away. You dig a hole, preparing the earth for the tree by removing any large rocks or roots that are in the way. Then, you set the tree into the hole. Again, you don’t walk away to leave the tree to fend for itself in a hole. You connect the tree to the rest of the earth by backfilling the dirt, tamping it down, and watering the newly planted tree in the hopes that it will take root and flourish as part of the landscape.


When you work with research in your writing, you should make the same preparations. Writers use the following order to integrate their sources into their writing. Read these three elements and then review the examples below:

1. Introduce (dig hole & prepare soil): Prepare your paper for the piece of research by crafting an introduction or signal phrase that sets the tone or positions the research for readers. This is also a good time to consider what readers need to know or might want to know about the source, like where it’s from and what makes the source credible.

1. Add Source (set tree in hole): Insert the research by summarizing, paraphrasing, or quoting, and cite it correctly in MLA style with quotation marks if it’s a direct quote and an in-text citation that corresponds to a works cited entry on your works cited page.

1. Comment (backfill, tamp, & water): Conclude the integration by commenting on the research, explaining it (if it’s a particularly dense piece of writing), connecting it to your main point, reacting to it if it’s particularly shocking or insightful, comparing it to other sources, or synthesizing it.


Here is an excerpt from Guernsey’s article on the effects of screen time on literacy (to read the full article, click on the title of the Works Cited entry below). See how this source has been integrated, or planted, into the following color-coded examples:


“As analysts and experts parse the data in the months and years to come, new twists may emerge. But the larger picture painted by today’s statistics is hard to miss: Media is embedded in children’s lives and dominating hours of their days, while reading is trailing behind. The next trick is to tease out what I call the Three C’s: the content, context and the individual child. What kinds of media — what TV shows, which online games? Who’s with them as they read and play, and how is that experience integrated into what they are learning or interested in? And what ages and dispositions of children are drawn to what kinds of media for what reasons? Until we can answer these questions, we will continue to be in the dark about the impact of media and its complicated connection to literacy among the next generation.”


Guernsey, Lisa. “Screen Time, Young Kids, and Literacy: New Data Begs Questions.” The Huffington Post, 25 Dec. 2011, Accessed 28 May 2017.


Summary Example

In her Huffington Post article, “Screen Time, Young Kids and Literacy: New Data Begs Questions”, Lisa Guernsey, director of the Early Education Initiative at the New America Foundation, claims the evidence is clear on one point: children today spend far more time on screens than they do reading. In other words, we are raising a generation of people who will be computer and touchscreen literate. Will that be enough? After all, most tech devices today offer “read to you” applications. What is really lost if we are reading less than we have ever before?


Paraphrase Example

The trend in increased media time and decreased reading time is clear, but many questions remain about the effects of this trend. Lisa Guernsey, director of the Early Education initiative at the New America Foundation, suggests that exploring details about the study, like specific media used and links between a child’s media exposure and non-media activities will reveal much more about the way media effects literacy. We should also examine how media time is supervised or co-experienced, and how individual differences among children such as age or media preference impact literacy (Guernsey). Given Guernsey’s suggested questions at the end of her article, I am rethinking my role in refereeing media exposure and reading time in my own household with three young children. I decided to try to answer some of her questions for my own kindergartner’s media use.


Quotation Example

While the trend in increased media time and decreased reading time is clear, many questions remain about the effects of this trend, as Lisa Guernsey warns in her Huffington Post article, “Screen Time, Young Kids and Literacy: New Data Begs Questions”: “What kinds of media — what TV shows, which online games? Who’s with them as they read and play, and how is that experience integrated into what they are learning or interested in? And what ages and dispositions of children are drawn to what kinds of media for what reasons?” These questions force me to consider the answers in my own life as a parent of young children, and I am rethinking how I use our I-pad, the number of times each week all three of my kids are in front of the tv while I make dinner, and when reading competes with media in my household.


Integration Practice

Quote a section out of one of the sources you located for your own writing project. With the metaphor of planting a tree in mind, create an introduction before the quote and a comment after the quote:


Create an accurate works cited entry for this source:




Using one of your other sources, summarize a section you find interesting. Plant a tree using an introduction and comment:



Create an accurate works cited entry for this source:




Finally, plant a tree by paraphrasing a third source:



Create an accurate works cited entry for this source:




How did your introduction or signal phrases differ as you moved from summary to paraphrase to quotation?




When are you more likely to use each of these integration strategies? Why?








How can you tell where the research ends, and where your comment begins in each of the examples you crafted above?




Describe your process for summarizing, and your process for paraphrasing information from a source. How do you ensure that you’re not plagiarizing?

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Written Discussion: Critical Listening

Written Discussion: Critical Listening/Careful Listening

While viewing the following two videos, listen carefully for–

  • What do the videos have in common? In what ways do they differ? What drew your attention or what did you find valuable?
  • Why do you know what you know? Why do you feel confident with what you have learned while watching these videos? Share the examples or information which best support the speakers’ viewpoints.
  • How will you use the information in these videos to adjust, improve, or change your listening style and/or listening skills?

Shape your ideas (and support) into a substantial post. Spend “quality time” thinking about your experience and then develop 3 paragraphs of 10 – 12 sentences per bullet point. Remember you’re focusing on “the what,” “the why,” and “the how.”

Ultimately, you might ask yourself, has this experience moved me toward my own philosophy of listening? If so, incorporate that into your writing.

FYI: It is certainly appropriate to refer back to the information in the videos but MLA or APA referencing is NOT necessary. This is informal writing. You are contemplating what it is you are learning, why the material is substantial, and how it is impacting you now and possibly into your future.

Once you’ve completed your response, review and comment on as many of your classmates’ writings as possible. You’ll want to communicate with a minimum of 3. (Remember, you’re not just posting a sentence or two.) Do your best to develop your writing so that you’re moving the conversation forward. Engage your classmates in a conversation about how they want to improve their listening skills.

Video 1

Video 2

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How Does Project Use Concepts From The Book

Working in Groups



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330 Hudson Street, NY, NY 10013

Working in Groups Communication Principles and Strategies Seventh Edition

Isa N. Engleberg Prince George’s Community College

Dianna R. Wynn Nash Community College



Acknowledgements of third party content appear 274–275 which constitutes an extension of this copyright page.

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. For information regarding permissions, request forms and the appropriate contacts within the Pearson Education Global Rights & Permissions department, please visit

PEARSON, ALWAYS LEARNING, and REVEL are exclusive trademarks owned by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates, in the U.S. and/or other countries.

Unless otherwise indicated herein, any third-party trademarks that may appear in this work are the property of their respective owners and any references to third-party trademarks, logos or other trade dress are for demon- strative or descriptive purposes only. Such references are not intended to imply any sponsorship, endorsement, authorization, or promotion of Pearson’s products by the owners of such marks, or any relationship between the owner and Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates, authors, licensees or distributors.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Engleberg, Isa N., author. | Wynn, Dianna, author. Title: Working in groups: communication principles and strategies / Isa N. Engleberg, Prince George’s Community College, Dianna R. Wynn, Nash Community College. Description: Seventh edition. | Boston : Pearson Education, Inc., [2017] | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2016009869| ISBN 9780134415529 | ISBN 0134415523 Subjects: LCSH: Group relations training. | Small groups. | Communication in small groups. Classification: LCC HM1086 .E53 2017 | DDC 302/.14–dc23 LC record available at

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ISBN-13: 978-0-13-441552-9 ISBN-10: 0-13-441552-3

VP, Product Development: Dickson Musslewhite Director, Content Strategy and Development: Sharon Geary Editor in Chief: Ashley Dodge Program Manager: Carly Czech Editorial Project Manager: Janet Wehner, iEnergizer Aptara®, Ltd. Development Editor: Karen Trost, iEngergizer Aptara®, Ltd. Instructional Designer: Rashida Patel, iEnergizer Aptara®, Ltd. Asset Development Team: LearningMate Solutions, Ltd. VP, Director of Marketing: Maggie Moylan Director, Project Management Services: Etain O’Dea Project Team Lead: Vamanan Namboodiri

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1 Introduction to Group Communication 1

2 Group Development 19

3 Group Member Participation 36

4 Diversity in Groups 53

5 Group Leadership 77

6 Verbal and Nonverbal Communication in Groups 99

7 Listening and Responding in Groups 119

8 Conflict and Cohesion in Groups 136

9 Decision Making and Problem Solving in Groups 155

10 Critical Thinking and Argumentation in Groups 178

11 Planning and Conducting Meetings 195

12 Group Presentations 215

Brief Contents



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Theory in Groups: Collective Intelligence 24

2.1.5: Adjourning Stage 24 Virtual Teams: Developmental Tasks 25

2.2: Group Goals 26 2.2.1: Establishing Group Goals 26

Theory in Groups: Goal Theory and Group Work 27

2.2.2: Balancing Group Goals and Hidden Agendas 27 Group Assessment: How Good Is Your Goal? 28

2.3: Group Norms 28 2.3.1: Types of Norms 29

GroupWork: Classroom Norms 29

2.3.2: Categories of Norms 30 2.3.3: Conformity 30

Ethics in Groups: Beware of Unreasonable Norms 30

2.3.4: Nonconformity 31 Groups in Balance . . . Change Norms as Needed 31

2.4: Group Motivation 33 2.4.1: A Sense of Meaningfulness 33 2.4.2: A Sense of Choice 33 2.4.3: A Sense of Competence 34 2.4.4: A Sense of Progress 34

Summary: Group Development 34

3 Group Member Participation 36 Case Study: Taming Tony the Tiger 36

3.1: Group Member Needs 37 3.1.1: Schutz’s Theory of Interpersonal Needs 37

GroupWork: Group Attraction Survey 39

3.1.2: Balancing Individual Needs and Group Needs 40

3.2: Member Roles 40 3.2.1: Group Task Roles 40 3.2.2: Group Social Maintenance Roles 41

Theory in Groups: Belbin’s Team-Role Theory 42

3.2.3: Disruptive Behaviors 43

3.3: Member Confidence 44 3.3.1: Communication Apprehension 44 3.3.2: Strategies for Reducing Communication

Apprehension 45 Group Assessment: Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA-24) 46

Virtual Teams: Confidence with Technology 47

3.3.3: Strategies for Helping Apprehensive Members 48

3.4: Member Assertiveness 48 Group Assessment: Assertiveness Scale 49

3.4.1: Balancing Passivity and Aggression 49

Preface xiii About the Authors xvii

1 Introduction to Group Communication 1

Case Study: The Study Group Dilemma 2

1.1: The Importance of Groups 2 Group Assessment: Group Communication Competencies Survey 3

1.2: Defining Group Communication 4 1.2.1: Key Elements of Group Communication 4

Theory in Groups: Systems Theory 6

1.2.2: Types of Groups 6 Virtual Teams: Groups in Cyberspace 7

1.3: Advantages and Disadvantages of Working in Groups 8

GroupWork: It Was the Best of Teams, It Was the Worst of Teams 9

1.3.1: Advantages of Working in Groups 9 Groups in Balance . . . Create Synergy 10

1.3.2: Disadvantages of Working in Groups 10

1.4: The Nature of Group Communication 11 1.4.1: Theories, Strategies, and Skills 11 1.4.2: The Group Communication Process 12

1.5: Balance as the Guiding Principle of Group Work 12

1.5.1: Groups in Balance 12 1.5.2: Balancing Group Dialectics 13

Theory in Groups: Relational Dialectics Theory 13

Groups in Balance . . . Enjoy Working Together 15

1.6: Ethical Group Communication 15 1.6.1: Ethics in Balance 16 1.6.2: Credo for Ethical Communication 16

Ethics in Groups: The National Communication Association Credo for Ethical Communication 16

GroupWork: The Ethics Credo in Action 17

Summary: Introduction to Group Communication 18

2 Group Development 19 Case Study: Nice to Meet You, Too 19

2.1: Group Development Stages 20 2.1.1: Forming Stage 21

Groups in Balance . . . Socialize Newcomers 21

2.1.2: Storming Stage 22 2.1.3: Norming Stage 23 2.1.4: Performing Stage 24




viii Contents

Groups in Balance . . . Know When and How to Say No 50

3.4.2: Assertiveness Skills 50 Ethics in Groups: Managing Manipulators 51

Summary: Group Member Participation 51

4 Diversity in Groups 53 Case Study: Diversity Dilemma 54

4.1: The Value of Group Diversity 54 4.1.1: Culture and Diversity 55 4.1.2: Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Groups 55

Groups in Balance . . . Seek Intellectual Diversity 56

4.2: Obstacles to Understanding Others 56 4.2.1: Ethnocentrism 56 4.2.2: Stereotyping 57 4.2.3: Prejudice 57 4.2.4: Discrimination 57

4.3: Personality Dimensions 58 4.3.1: The Big Five Personality Traits 58 4.3.2: The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® 58

Groups in Balance . . . Value Both Introverts and Extroverts 59

4.3.3: Motivating Personality Types in Groups 61

GroupWork: Personality Types in Groups 61

4.4: Cultural Dimensions 62 4.4.1: Individualism–Collectivism 62 4.4.2: Power Distance 63 4.4.3: Gender Expectations 65 4.4.4: Time Orientations 65 4.4.5: High Context–Low Context 66

Virtual Teams: Cultural Dimensions and Communication Technology 66

Group Assessment: Cultural Context Inventory 67

4.5: Gender Dimensions 68 4.5.1: Collective Intelligence 68 4.5.2: Amount of Talk 68

Theory in Groups: Muted Group Theory 69

4.6: Generational Dimensions 69 4.6.1: Four Generational Dimensions 70 4.6.2: Ensuring Successful Intergenerational

Interactions 70

4.7: Religious Dimensions 71 Group Assessment: Religious Knowledge Survey 72

4.8: Adapting to Diversity 73 4.8.1: Be Mindful 73 4.8.2: Adapt to Others 73 4.8.3: Actively Engage Others 73

Ethics in Groups: Practice the Platinum Rule 73

Summary: Diversity in Groups 74

5 Group Leadership 77 Case Study: The Leader in Sheep’s Clothing 77

5.1: What Is Leadership? 78 Groups in Balance . . . Value Both Leadership and Followership 79

5.2: Becoming a Leader 80 5.2.1: Designated Leaders 80 5.2.2: Emergent Leaders 80 5.2.3: Strategies for Becoming a Leader 81

Group Assessment: Are You Ready to Lead? 82

5.3: Leadership and Power 82 5.3.1: Types of Power 83 5.3.2: The Power of Power 83

Ethics in Groups: Leadership Integrity 84

5.4: Leadership Theories 84 5.4.1: Trait Leadership Theory 85 5.4.2: Styles Leadership Theory 85

Groups in Balance . . . Cultivate the Two Sides of “Great” Leadership 86

5.4.3: Situational Leadership Theory 86 GroupWork: The Least-Preferred-Coworker Scale 88

Theory in Groups: An Abundance of Leadership Theories 90

5.5: The 5M Model of Leadership Effectiveness 90 5.5.1: Model Leadership Behavior 91 5.5.2: Motivate Members 91 5.5.3: Manage Group Process 92 5.5.4: Make Decisions 92 5.5.5: Mentor Members 92 5.5.6: Balancing the 5 Ms of Leadership

Effectiveness 93 Virtual Teams: Sharing Virtual Leadership Functions 94

5.6: Diversity and Leadership 94 5.6.1: Gender and Leadership 94 5.6.2: Leading Multicultural Groups 96

Summary: Group Leadership 97

6 Verbal and Nonverbal Communication in Groups 99

Case Study: How to Sink the Mayflower 100

6.1: Two Essential Tools 100

6.2: Team Talk 101 6.2.1: The Dimensions of Team Talk 101

Group Assessment: Auditing Team Talk 102

6.2.2: Use I, You, and We Language Appropriately 103

6.3: Language Challenges 103 6.3.1: Abstract Words 103



Contents ix

7.3: Key Listening Strategies and Skills 129 7.3.1: Use Your Extra Thought Speed 129 7.3.2: Apply the Golden Listening Rule 129 7.3.3: “Listen” to Nonverbal Behavior 130 7.3.4: Minimize Distractions 130 7.3.5: Listen Before You Leap 130 7.3.6: Take Relevant Notes 130

Virtual Teams: Listening Online 131

7.4: Listening to Differences 132 7.4.1: Gender Differences 133 7.4.2: Personality Differences 133 7.4.3: Cultural Differences 133

Groups in Balance . . . Learn the Art of High-Context Listening 133

7.4.4: Hearing Ability Differences 133 Ethics in Groups: Self-Centered Listening Sabotages Success 134

Summary: Listening and Responding in Groups 135

8 Conflict and Cohesion in Groups 136 Case Study: Sociology in Trouble 137

8.1: Conflict in Groups 137 8.1.1: Task Conflict 138 8.1.2: Personal Conflict 138 8.1.3: Procedural Conflict 138

8.2: Constructive and Destructive Conflict 139 GroupWork: Conflict Awareness Log 139

Virtual Teams: Conflict in Cyberspace 140

8.3: Conflict Styles 141 8.3.1: Avoiding Conflict Style 141 8.3.2: Accommodating Conflict Style 141

Groups in Balance . . . Know How to Apologize and When to Forgive 142

8.3.3: Competing Conflict Style 142 8.3.4: Compromising Conflict Style 143 8.3.5: Collaborating Conflict Style 143 8.3.6: Choosing a Conflict Style 143

Group Assessment: How Do You Respond to Conflict? 144

8.4: Conflict Management Strategies 145 8.4.1: The 4Rs Method 145

Theory in Groups: Attribution Theory and Member Motives 146

8.4.2: The A-E-I-O-U Model 147 8.4.3: Cooperative Negotiation 147 8.4.4: Anger Management 147

Ethics in Groups: The Group and the Doctrine of the Mean 148

8.5: Conflict and Member Diversity 149 8.5.1: Cultural Responses to Conflict 149

6.3.2: Bypassing 104 6.3.3: Exclusionary Language 104 6.3.4: Jargon 104

Ethics in Groups: Sticks and Stones May Break Your Bones, but Words Can Hurt Forever 105

6.4: Language Differences 106 6.4.1: Language and Gender 106 6.4.2: Language and Culture 106

Theory in Groups: The Whorf Hypothesis 107

6.5: Nonverbal Communication 108 Groups in Balance . . . Speak “Silently” 108

6.5.1: Personal Appearance 108 6.5.2: Facial Expression and Eye Contact 108 6.5.3: Vocal Expression 109 6.5.4: Physical Expression 109

Virtual Teams: Expressing Emotions Online 110

6.6: The Nonverbal Environment 111 6.6.1: Arrangement of Space 111 6.6.2: Perceptions of Personal Space 112

6.7: Nonverbal Differences 113 6.7.1: Nonverbal Communication and Gender 114 6.7.2: Nonverbal Communication and Culture 114

GroupWork: What is Nonverbally Normal? 114

6.8: Creating a Supportive Communication Climate 115

6.8.1: Defensive and Supportive Behaviors 115 6.8.2: Immediacy in Groups 116

GroupWork: How Immediate Are You? 117

Summary: Verbal and Nonverbal Communication in Groups 117

7 Listening and Responding in Groups 119

Case Study: That’s Not What I Said 119

7.1: The Challenge of Listening in Groups 120 7.1.1: The Nature of Listening 121 7.1.2: The Need for Better Listening 121

Group Assessment: Student Listening Inventory 122

7.1.3: The Habits of Listeners 123

7.2: The Listening Process 124 Theory in Groups: The HURIER Listening Model 124

7.2.1: Listening to Hear 125 7.2.2: Listening to Understand 125

Groups in Balance . . . Ask Questions to Enhance Comprehension 126

7.2.3: Listening to Remember 126 7.2.4: Listening to Interpret 126 7.2.5: Listening to Evaluate 127 7.2.6: Listening to Respond 127

GroupWork: Practice Paraphrasing 128



x Contents

Groups in Balance . . . Let Members Save Face 149

8.5.2: Gender Responses to Conflict 150

8.6: Group Cohesion 150 8.6.1: Enhancing Group Cohesion 150 8.6.2: Groupthink 151

Summary: Conflict and Cohesion in Groups 153

9 Decision Making and Problem Solving in Groups 155

Case Study: No More Horsing Around 156 9.1: Understanding Group Decision Making

and Problem Solving 156 9.1.1: Clear Goal 157

Theory in Groups: Asking Single and Subordinate Questions 157

9.1.2: Quality Content 159 9.1.3: Structured Procedures 159 9.1.4: Commitment to Deliberation 159 9.1.5: Collaborative Communication Climate 159

9.2: Group Decision Making 160 9.2.1: Decision-Making Methods 160

Groups in Balance . . . Avoid False Consensus 161

9.2.2: Decision-Making Styles 161 GroupWork: What Is Your Decision-Making Style? 162

9.3: Group Problem Solving 163 9.3.1: Brainstorming 164 9.3.2: Nominal Group Technique (NGT) 165 9.3.3: Decreasing Options Technique (DOT) 166 9.3.4: The Progressive Problem-Solving Method 168

Groups in Balance . . . Avoid Analysis Paralysis 169

Virtual Teams: Mediated Decision Making and Problem Solving 170

9.4: Creativity and Problem Solving 172 9.4.1: Creative Thinking 172 9.4.2: Enhancing Group Creativity 172

Ethics in Groups: The Morality of Creative Outcomes 173

9.5: Problem-Solving Realities 173 9.5.1: Politics 173 9.5.2: Preexisting Preferences 174 9.5.3: Power 174 9.5.4: Organizational Culture 174

Group Assessment: Problem-Solving Competencies in Groups 175

Summary: Decision Making and Problem Solving in Groups 176

10 Critical Thinking and Argumentation in Groups 178

Case Study: Slicing the Pie 178 10.1: The Nature of Critical Thinking and

Argumentation 179 10.1.1: The Value of Argumentation in Groups 180

Theory in Groups: Argumentative Communication 181

10.1.2: Deliberative Group Argumentation 181 Group Assessment: Argumentativeness Scale 182

10.2: Understanding Arguments 183 10.2.1: Claim, Evidence, and Warrant 184 10.2.2: Backing, Reservation, and Qualifier 184

GroupWork: Analyze the Argument 185

10.3: Supporting Arguments 186 Groups in Balance . . . Document Sources of Evidence 186

10.3.1: Types of Evidence 186 10.3.2: Tests of Evidence 187

Virtual Teams: Think Critically about the Internet 187

10.4: Presenting Arguments 188 10.4.1: State Your Claim 188

GroupWork: Clarify Your Claims 188

10.4.2: Support Your Claim 189 10.4.3: Provide Reasons 189 10.4.4: Summarize Your Argument 189

10.5: Refuting Arguments 189 10.5.1: Listen to the Argument 189 10.5.2: State the Opposing Claim 190 10.5.3: Preview Your Objections 190 10.5.4: Assess the Evidence 190 10.5.5: Assess the Reasoning 190 10.5.6: Summarize Your Refutation 190

10.6: Adapting to Argumentation Styles 191 10.6.1: Gender Differences in Argumentation 191 10.6.2: Cultural Differences in Argumentation 191 10.6.3: Argumentation and

Emotional Intelligence 192 Ethics in Groups: Ethical Argumentation 192

Summary: Critical Thinking and Argumentation in Groups 193

11 Planning and Conducting Meetings 195

Case Study: Monday Morning Blues 196 11.1: Meetings, Meetings, Meetings 196

11.1.1: What Is a Meeting? 197 GroupWork: It Was the Best of Meetings; It Was the Worst of Meetings 197

11.1.2: Why Do Meetings Fail? 198

11.2: Planning and Chairing Meetings 198 Theory in Groups: Chaos and Complexity Theories 199

11.2.1: Questions About Meetings 199 11.2.2: Preparing the Agenda 201

Groups in Balance . . . Avoid Meetingthink 202

11.2.3: Chairing the Meeting 203 11.2.4: Preparing the Minutes 204

Ethics in Groups: Use Good Judgment When Taking Minutes 205



Contents xi

11.3: Managing Members in Meetings 205 11.3.1: Adapting to Problematic Behaviors 205 11.3.2: Adapting to Member Differences 207

Virtual Teams: Meeting in Cyberspace 207

11.4: Parliamentary Procedure 208 11.4.1: Who Uses Parliamentary Procedure? 209 11.4.2: The Guiding Principles of Parliamentary

Procedure 209 11.4.3: The Parliamentary Players 210 11.4.4: Making a Motion 211 11.4.5: Making a Main Motion 212

11.5: Evaluating the Meeting 213 Group Assessment: Post-Meeting Reaction (PMR) Form 213

Summary: Planning and Conducting Meetings 214

12 Group Presentations 215 Case Study: Team Challenge 215 12.1: Presentations in and by Groups 216

12.2: Presentation Guidelines 217 12.2.1: Purpose 217 12.2.2: Audience 218 12.2.3: Credibility 219

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