Career Counseling And Career Development

Topic: Career Counseling and Career Development.

Type of paper: Critical thinking

Discipline: Psychology and Education: Counseling

Format or citation style: APA


1. Please define career counseling and career development. In your definitions, please discuss the myths counseling students may have about career counseling as well as the rationale for the importance for counselors, regardless of their intended focus, to have competency in career counseling. In your chosen counseling path, how would you implement the competencies you learn in this course to work with your population of interest?

2. Please describe the similarities and differences between  Lent, Brown, and Hackett’s SCCT and Gottfredson’s theory of Circumscription, Compromise and Self-Creation?

3. Share your understanding of one of the Career Development Theories discussed in chapters 2 and 3 that appeals to you the most and evaluate its strengths and limitations for diverse populations.

4.      Tim and Scott and have been married for 1 year. Scott comes to you for counseling due to Tim’s (stay at home dad) expressing not feeling appreciated by Scott (a surgeon in the ER of their local hospital). Scott reports to you that he feels left out by his family (they have two children 3-year old girl and 5-year old boy), and not as connected to Tim emotionally as they used to be. He works between 60 and 70 hours per week at 12-hour shifts. He feels like his work is important and due to being a small town, his unique skills are essential for the small hospital and is often needed for critical procedures. With the information you have, please discuss some challenges Scott is facing? Integrating your reading of the course materials, how would you go about working with Scott? What are career related concerns that may be important to Scott? Any other thoughts or valuations of this case?

Career Development GDPC 643

September 3, 2019

Chapter 2

Biblical perspectives on work


Gen 2:15 The Lord God took the man and put him in the Garden of Eden to work it and take care of it.


…“Cursed is the ground because of you; through painful toil you will eat food from it all the days of your life.

18 It will produce thorns and thistles for you, and you will eat the plants of the field.

19 By the sweat of your brow you will eat your food until you return to the ground, since from it you were taken; for dust you are and to dust you will return.”


Four Domains of Client Concerns

Career: Indecisiveness, deficiencies, work identity, developmental, job satisfaction, etc.

Affective: emotional lability, sad, anxious, angry, panic, self-esteem, inferiority, interpersonal

Cognitive-Behavioral: faulty thinking, beliefs, inappropriate or self-destructive behavior

Cultural: mastery of English, basic skills, collectivism, cultural shock, acculturation, SES, gender norms/stereotypes, sexual orientation






What is a career?



What is a Career?





Lifestyle concept

Course of events constituting a life

Total constellation of roles played over the course of a lifetime (Herr et al (2004)

Multiple life roles people play and differences in the importance they assign to these roles

Homemaker, volunteer

I am a nurturer

Career Development

Career Development is a “continuous lifelong processes (psychological/behavioral/developmental experiences) that focuses on seeking, obtaining and processing information about self, occupational and educational alternatives, lifestyles and role options” (Hansen, 1976).

Put another way, career development is the process through which people come to understand themselves overtime as they relate to the world of work and their role in it.



How have you come to understand yourself over your lifespan with regards to work?




Four TYPES of Career Theories

Trait-oriented – people’s traits, jobs’ traits

Social Learning and Cognitive Theories – social conditioning, social position, life events

Developmental – individuals make changes and adapt. Self-concept is critical

Person in Environment Perspective – Clients are viewed as products of the environment. Client concerns are just inside the individual.

Career Theories

Career development vs. career decision making

How do I? vs. Fit

No one theory adequately explains the totality of individual or group career behavior

Theories and research on career development primarily applicable to White, middle-class, hetero, men.

Career development experiences of women, POC, PWD, LGBTQ, Low SES



Cognitive Information Processing (CIP) Theory




Developed by Peterson, Sampson, and Reardan (1991).

The major strategy of the CIP theory is to provide learning events that will develop the individual’s processing abilities.

Career problem solving is primarily a cognitive process that can be improved by developing skills & integrating the best information.

CIP theory

Emphasizes the notion that career information counseling is a learning event.

A major difference of this theory is the role of cognition as a mediating force that leads individuals to greater power and control in determining their own destinies.

Remove the gap that exists between the client’s current situation and their future career situation by identifying needs and developing interventions.

Social Cognitive Career Theory SCCT (Lent, Brown, Hackett, 1996).

Career self-efficacy is defined as the possibility that low expectations of efficacy with respect to some aspect of career behavior may serve as a detriment optimal career choice and the development of the individual.

An individual might avoid areas of coursework associated with a career because of low self-efficacy (I just can’t do Algebra).

More about SCCT

SCCT views the personal determinants of career development as:

Self efficacy.

Outcome expectations.

Personal goals.

All three are considered to be building blocks within the triadic causal system to determine the course of career development and its outcome

Individuals develop interests or activities in which they view themselves as competent and generally expect valued outcomes






John Holland’s Typology (1992) (Trait and Factor)

Individuals are attracted to a given career because of their personalities and numerous variables that make up their backgrounds.

Congruent of one’s view itself with occupational preference establishes what Holland refers to as the modal personal style.

A person chooses a career to satisfy one’s preferred modal personal orientation. The strength of this orientation, as compared with career environments will be critical to the individual selection of a preferred lifestyle.






Holland, continued

Individuals out of their elements who have conflicting occupational environmental roles and goals will have inconsistent and divergent career patterns.

In our culture, most persons can be categorized as one of six types: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, or conventional.

There are six types of environments: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, or conventional.

People search for environments that will let them exercise their skills and abilities. Their behavior is determined by an interaction between personality and environment.

A person’s behavior is determined by an interaction between his personality and his environment

Do This

Take the Holland Code Quiz and record your result.

You should get a 3-letter code at the end, you may receive multiple codes (ASR, SRA, RAS, etc.)

Holland’s 5 Key Concepts

Consistency- the closer the types are on the hexagon, the more consistent the individual will be. ASR, consistent?

Differentiation-individuals that fit a pure personality type are differentiated. ASR, SRA, RAS differentiated?

Identity- individuals have a clear and stable picture of their goals.

Congruence – an individual’s personality type matches the environment. A high S working in a high R environment congruent?

Calculus – people and environments can be researched



LTCC (Developmental)

Krumboltz’s Learning Theory of Career Counseling (1975).

Career selection is based primarily on four factors:

Genetic endowments and special abilities

Environmental conditions and events (floods, etc)

Learning experiences (reactions to consequences)

Task approach skills (problem solving skills)

LTCC, continued

Positive reinforcement during the activities of a course of study or occupation will make the individual more likely to express a preference for that course of study or field of work.

Proficiency in a field of work does not ensure that an individual will remain in that field of work.

Learning takes place through observations as well as through direct experiences.

Limitations of LTCC

Some experts complain that this theory has not been well researched, especially with culturally diverse groups.

Chance events over one’s lifespan can have both positive and negative consequences.

Clients need to expand their capabilities and interests, not based decisions entirely on existing characteristics (or stable occupations)

Developmental Theories

Individuals make changes during developmental stages and adapt to changing life roles.

Counselors are to evaluate the many unique developmental needs of each client on establishing counseling goals.

Add to previous theories in which adult concerns have not been the focus, but rather the initial career choice.

Primary counseling role is to assist clients to understand how their unique development influences perceptions of life roles, including work role.


Life-Span, Life-Space (Developmental) (Donald Super, 1972)

Career development is a process that unfolds gradually over the lifespan.

Counselors are therefore to be prepared to address client concerns over a lifetime of development, during which individuals encounter situational and personal changes.

Self-concept theory is the centerpiece of Super’s approach to vocational behavior

Super’s Theory

Individuals who are given opportunities to learn more about themselves will learn to expand their career considerations and might be more confident in their initial choices.

Super’s developmental stages:

Growth (0-14 yrs) — Maintenance (45-64)

Exploratory (15-24 yrs) — Decline (65++)

Establishment (25-44 yrs)

Super’s developmental tasks:

Crystallization (14-18): general vocational goal

Specification (18-21): tentative toward specific

Implementation (21-24): completing training

Stabilization (24-35): confirming career by exp.

Consolidation (35++): advancement, status


Super maintained that people cycled and recycled through developmental tasks.


Gottfredson and her theory (Developmental)

Gottfredson’s theory differs from other theories in four major ways:

There is an attempt to implement the social and psychological self. Social identity through work.

Cognitions of self and occupations develop from early childhood is a major focus of the theory.

Career choice is a process of eliminating options and narrowing choices.

Individuals compromise their goals as they try to implement their aspirations.

Gottfredson’s major concepts:

Self-concept is one’s appearance, abilities, personality, gender, values, and place in society.

Occupational stereotypes include the different personalities of people in different types of occupations, the work that is done, and the appropriateness of that work for different types of people.

Cognitive maps of occupations (i.e. an accountant has above average prestige, sex-type = male).

Career Constructivism (Developmental)

Four major tasks that society has imposed upon children:

1. Become concerned about one’s future as a worker.

2. Increase personal control of her one’s vocational activities.

3. Form conceptions about how to make educational and vocational choices.

4. Acquire the confidence to make and implement these career choices.

Distorted career perceptions during this period can hamper future career choices.

Client Labels

Decided – those who have made a career decision; could profit from further decision-making opportunities.

Undecided – have not made a career decision and prefer to delay making a commitment.

Indecisive – has a high level of anxiety accompanied by dysfunctional thinking.

Lack of cognitive clarity

Or irrational beliefs

Multicultural Career Counseling Model

Counselors should remain alert and open to learning more about the needs of minorities and the context of their worldview.

Establish trust and rapport.

Identify career issues

Assess impact of cultural variables

Set counseling goals

Make culturally appropriate counseling interventions

Make decision

Implement and follow up

Intervention Strategies (Discuss)

Which model and interventions would you use for



Indecisive clients

What if your client was of a different culture than you are, would it change your intervention?

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