Self-Reflection: Hays ADDRESSING Model
All of us have multifaceted cultural identities, so you are likely to have experienced situations where you were in the cultural majority as well as others where you were in the cultural minority. This assignment will help you consider the influence of your cultural memberships on your ability to work professionally with people of similar cultural backgrounds, as well as with people from different cultural backgrounds. All clinicians have biases. Failure to recognize these biases creates harm. It takes more strength to acknowledge your biases than to argue that you have none.
Dr. Pamela Hays developed the ADDRESSING model to help psychologists recognize 10 major factors of cultural difference that are common in the United States: Age (and generational influences), Developmental and acquired Disabilities, Religion and spiritual identity, Ethnicity and racial identity, Socioeconomic status, Sexual orientation, Indigenous heritage, National origin, and Gender. Note that this list is not comprehensive; there are thousands of different cultural identities in our country. The ADDRESSING model just sums up the 10 most common points of cultural difference.

  • Use the Hays ADDRESSING Model Template linked in Resources to conduct a cultural self-assessment that describes your identity in all elements of the Hays ADDRESSING model.
    • You must complete and submit the Hays ADDRESSING Model Template provided for this assignment. Do not submit a paper. Papers will not be graded.
    • For more information about the Hays ADDRESSING model, review Hays’s article, “Looking Into the Clinician’s Mirror: Cultural Self-Assessment,” linked in Resources.
  • After completing the table on the template, review your entries and then respond to the three questions posed below the table in the template.
    • There are no right or wrong responses for this assignment. You will be graded on your insight and ability to recognize the implications of your privilege and biases when you work with others.
  • Additional Requirements
  • Should be free of errors that detract from the overall message.
  •  Use the Hays ADDRESSING Model Template in Resources. Use current APA style and formatting guidelines as applicable to this assignment.
  • Arial, 12 points.



    Hays ADDRESSING Model Template


    An example of a partially completed table is provided on the next page.

    Cultural Group (according to the ADDRESSING model)
    How You Identify
    Implications for your work. Consider where you have privilege, and which groups might be easy or difficult to work with.
    A. Age (and generational influences).    
    D. Disability (developmental).    
    D. Disability (acquired).    
    R. Religion and spiritual identity.    
    E. Ethnicity and racial identity.    
    S. Socioeconomic status.    
    S. Sexual orientation.    
    I. Indigenous heritage.    
    N. National origin.    
    G. Gender.    

    After filling out the table above, review your entries. Then use the space below and respond to the following:

    1. Based on your entries to the table above, evaluate three areas where you have privilege and three areas where you do not (this is also part of the first discussion in this course). Provide examples of each.

    2. Evaluate how your own cultural identities or other factors may possibly influence you to have any biases in relation to others with different cultural identities.

    3. Analyze the implications your cultural identifications may have on your professional relationships.

    Partially Completed Example
    Cultural Group (according to the ADDRESSING model)
    How You Identify
    Implications for your work. Consider where you have privilege, and what groups might be easy or difficult to work with.
    A. Age (and generational influences). Middle age (40s). I would have difficulty working with children and young adults (15–20). I realize I’m too verbal in my therapy approach, and appreciate clients who can have discussions involving complex concepts.
    D. Disability (developmental).    
    D. Disability (acquired).    
    R. Religion and spiritual identity.    
    E. Ethnicity and racial identity.    
    S. Socioeconomic status.    
    S. Sexual orientation.  


    I. Indigenous heritage.    
    N. National origin.    
    G. Gender. Female I would have problems working with those who follow strict social sex roles. (Only men can do men things and only women can do women things). I find gender and social sex roles much more fluid.

    Hays, P. A. (2008). Looking into the clinician’s mirror: Cultural self-assessment. In P. A. Hays (Ed.), Addressing cultural complexities in practice: Assessment, diagnosis, and therapy (2nd ed., pp. 41–62). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.



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