Psychology ADHD

In Chapter 14,  page 507 in your textbook is  an article that addressed critical thinking about ADHD.

Normal High Energy or Genuine Disorder? Please read this section and then submit a one-two page response to the following questions.

Where do you stand in this controversy? Why? (Explain your answer)

  • Exploring PSYCHOLOGY

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd iMyersEx9e_FM.indd i 10/25/12 11:03 AM10/25/12 11:03 AM



    MyersEx9e_FM.indd iiMyersEx9e_FM.indd ii 10/25/12 11:03 AM10/25/12 11:03 AM

    this page left intentionally blank




    Special Contributor

    C. Nathan DeWall, University of Kentucky


    Hope College Holland, Michigan

    David G. Myers

    Exploring PSYCHOLOGY


    MyersEx9e_FM.indd iiiMyersEx9e_FM.indd iii 10/25/12 11:03 AM10/25/12 11:03 AM



    Senior Vice President, Editorial and Production: Catherine Woods Publisher: Kevin Feyen Executive Marketing Manager: Katherine Nurre Development Editors: Christine Brune, Nancy Fleming Director of Print and Digital Development: Tracey Kuehn Media Editor: Elizabeth Block Supplements Editors: Betty Probert, Nadina Persaud Photo Editor: Bianca Moscatelli Photo Researcher: Donna Ranieri Art Director: Babs Reingold Cover Designers: Lyndall Culbertson and Babs Reingold Interior and Chapter Opener Designer: Charles Yuen Layout Designer: Lee Ann McKevitt Cover Photo Illustrator: Lyndall Culbertson Associate Managing Editor: Lisa Kinne Project Editor: Jeanine Furino Marketing Assistant: Julie Tompkins Illustration Coordinators: Bill Page, Janice Donnola Illustrations: TSI Graphics, Keith Kasnot, Todd Buck Production Manager: Sarah Segal Composition: TSI Graphics Printing and Binding: RR Donnelley

    Library of Congress Control Number: 2012948473

    Hardcover: ISBN-13: 978-1-4292-6679-6 ISBN-10: 1-4292-6679-1 Paperback: ISBN-13: 978-1-4641-1172-3 ISBN-10: 1-4641-1172-3 Loose-Leaf: ISBN-13: 978-1-4641-0840-2 ISBN-10: 1-4641-0840-4 PI edition: ISBN-13: 978-1-4641-4705-0 ISBN-10: 1-4641-4705-1

    © 2014, 2011, 2008, 2005 by Worth Publishers

    All rights reserved.

    Printed in the United States of America

    All royalties from the sale of this book are assigned to the David and Carol Myers Foundation, which exists to receive and distribute funds to other charitable organizations.

    Worth Publishers Macmillan Higher Education 41 Madison Avenue Houndmills, Basingstoke New York, NY 10010 RG21 6XS, England


    Photo Credits: Cover: Profi le of smiling woman: JGI/Jamie Grill/Getty Images; Man taking a photo: Pedro Vidal/Shutterstock; Mother with baby daughter: Erik Isakson/age fotostock; Circus juggler: RubberBall/SuperStock; Chapter 1: pp. viii, xlii–1, 31, 33: Spiral: Charles Yuen; Water: Photodisc/Getty Images; Rabbit: Mike Kemp/ Getty Images; Magnifying glass: Charles Yuen; MRI: Living Art Enterprises, LLC/Photo Researchers, Inc.; Infant: Lane Oatey/Getty Images; Man holding boxes: Erik Isakson/ age fotostock; Girl studying: OJO Images Ltd/Alamy. Chapter 2: pp. viii, 34–35 and 72, 75: Circuit boards: Charles Yuen; Female kicking: Lev Olkha /Shutterstock; Fox: Eric Isselée/Shutterstock; Brain scan: Zephyr/Photo Researchers, Inc.; Butterfl y: Dim154/ Shutterstock. Chapter 3: pp. ix, 76–77 and 113, 115: Butterfl ies: Svetlana Larina/ istockphoto; Butterfl ies: polarica/istockphoto; Cup of coffee: Vasca/Shutterstock; Sleeping toddler: swissmacky/Shutterstock; Woman meditating: INSADCO Photography/Alamy. Chapter 4: pp. ix, 116–117 and 159, 161: Bucket in sand: René/istockphoto; Beach and palm tree: Charles Yuen; Beach ball: WendellandCarolyn/istockphoto; Mother helping daugh- ter with homework: Indeed/Getty Images; Teens texting: Allan Shoemake/Getty Images; Bride and groom: bluehand/Shutterstock; Mother holding baby: Erik Isakson/age fotostock; Baby being fed with spoon: Asia Images/Getty Images. Chapter 5: pp. ix, 162–163 and 187, 189: Petri dish: Samuel Ashfi eld/Photo Researchers, Inc.; Chromosomes: Pasieka/ Photo Researchers, Inc.; Swans: The Boston Globe/John Tlumacki; Dad and child: MGP/ Getty Images; Teenagers of different heights: Rob Lewine/Getty Images; She-male: vita khorzhevska/Shutterstock; Teenage couple: Petrenko Andriy/Shutterstock. Chapter 6: pp. x, 190–191 and 232, 235: Herbs: Ivonne Wierink/Shutterstock; Herbs: Margrit Hirsch/ Shutterstock; Citrus: Lauren Burke/Jupiterimages; Man with cello: sbarabu/Shutterstock; Child kissing mother’s face: Jose Luis Pelaez, Inc./Blend Images/Corbis; Woman holding fl ower: Asia Images Group/Superstock. Chapter 7: pp. x, 236–237 and 267, 269: Nest with eggs: Duncan Usher/Foto Natura/Getty Images; Trees: Yuriy Kulyk/Shutterstock, Tungphoto/Shutterstock, irin-k/Shutterstock, Perfect Picture Parts/Alamy; Cat: Eric Isselée/Shutterstock; Pigeon: Vitaly Titov & Maria SideInikova/Shutterstock; Kids playing videogames: Stanislav Sointsev/Getty Images; Dog doing stunts: Marina Jay/Shutterstock; Girl on laptop: Lauren Burke/Getty Images; People with books on heads: Image Source/ SuperStock. Chapter 8: pp. xi, 270–271 and 301, 303: Film strips: Charles Yuen; Mouse trap: Darren Matthews/Alamy; Cookie: Jean Sandler/FeaturePics; Girl studying: Sigrid Olsson/PhotoAlto/Corbis; Man taking photo: Pedro Vidal/Shutterstock; Hot air balloon: D. Hurst/Alamy. Chapter 9: pp. xi, 304–305 and 347, 349: Various balls: Charles Yuen; Woman running hurdles: Ocean/Corbis; Man doing crossword: Ann Baldwin/Shutterstock; Puzzle pieces: Alexey Lebedev/Shutterstock; Woman shooting basketball: Blend Images/ Jupiterimages; Man playing saxophone: Masterfi le (Royalty-Free Division); Elephant: Johan Swanepoel/Alamy. Chapter 10: pp. xii, 350–351 and 386: Vietnam landscape: Charles Yuen; Girl using cell phone: Thomas Northcut/Jupiterimages; Woman on treadmill:; Teenage boys: Photodisc/Jupiterimages; Woman with arms raised: Mark Andersen/agefotostock. Chapter 11: pp. xii, 389–390 and 419, 421: Fruit and vegetables: Charles Yuen; Two women laughing: Mark Andersen/Getty Images; Man look- ing angry: PhotoSpin, Inc./Alamy; Man kissing dog: Images; Man medi- tating: Dean Mitchell/Shutterstock; Woman touching ground: IMAGEMORE/agefotostock: Nun praying: LLC/Alamy; Tissues, aspirin: D. Hurst/Alamy. Chapter 12: pp. xiii, 422–423 and 453, 455: Masks: Charles Yuen, Bartosz Hadyniak/istockphoto, Perry Correll/Shutterstock, brytta/istockphoto, Hemera Technologies/Jupiterimages; Happy dog: Erik Lam/Shutterstock; Centaur: Liquidlibrary/Jupiterimages; Girl: Timothy Large/Shutterstock; Circus juggler: RubberBall/Superstock. Chapter 13: pp. xiii, 456–457 and 501, 503: Aerial beach scene: Brand X Pictures; Football: Todd Taulman/ Shutterstock; Blog links: Lada Adamic and Natalie Glance; Wrench: Punchstock/Corbis; Gaming console: Microsoft Corporation; Tattooed arm: David Katzenstein/Photolibrary; Dancing couple: Photodisc/Jupiterimages. Chapter 14: pp. xiii, 504–505 and 541: Upset woman: Wavebreakmedia Ltd/Jupiterimages; Eyes: Blend Images/Alamy, Photodisc/ Getty Images; Tarantula: Martin Harvey/Jupiterimages; Snake: Hemera Technologies/ Jupiterimages; Blindfolded woman leading man: Erik Isakson/age footstock; Depressed man: Image Source/Getty Images. Chapter 15: pp. xiv, 544–545 and 578, 580: Crocus fl ow- ers through snow: Myotis/Shutterstock; Couple on bicycle: RubberBall/SuperStock; Healthy woman: RubberBall/Nicole Hill/Jupiterimages; People in rainforest: Randy Faris/Corbis.

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd ivMyersEx9e_FM.indd iv 10/25/12 11:03 AM10/25/12 11:03 AM



    For Sara Neevel with gratitude for your meticulous support, and for your friendship

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd vMyersEx9e_FM.indd v 10/25/12 11:03 AM10/25/12 11:03 AM



    vi PREFACE

    DAVID MYERS received his psychology Ph.D. from the Univer- sity of Iowa. He has spent his career at Hope College in Michigan, where he has taught dozens of introductory psychology sections. Hope College students have invited him to be their commencement speaker and voted him “outstanding professor.”

    His research and writings have been recognized by the Gordon Allport Intergroup Relations Prize, by a 2010 Honored Scientist award from the Federation of Associations in Behavioral & Brain Sciences, by a 2010 Award for Service on Behalf of Personality and Social Psychology, and by three honorary doctorates.

    Myers’ scientific articles have, with support from National Science Foun- dation grants, appeared in three dozen scientific periodicals, including Science, American Scientist, Psychological Science, and the American Psycholo- gist. In addition to his scholarly writing and his textbooks for introduc- tory and social psychology, he also digests psychological science for the general public. His writings have appeared in four dozen magazines, from Today’s Education to Scientific American. He also has authored five general audience books, including The Pursuit of Happiness and Intuition: Its Powers and Perils.

    David Myers has chaired his city’s Human Relations Commission, helped found a thriving assistance center for families in poverty, and spoken to hundreds of college and community groups. Drawing on his experience, he also has written three dozen articles and a book (A Quiet World) about hearing loss, and he is advocating a transformation in American assis- tive listening technology (see For his leadership, he received an American Academy of Audiology Presidential Award in 2011, and the Hearing Loss Association of America Walter T. Ridder Award in 2012.

    He bikes to work year-round and plays regular pick-up basketball. David and Carol Myers have raised two sons and a daughter, and have one granddaughter.



    MyersEx9e_FM.indd viMyersEx9e_FM.indd vi 10/25/12 11:03 AM10/25/12 11:03 AM



    PREFACE vii


    Preface . . . xv

    Time Management: Or, How to Be a Great Student and Still Have a Life . . . xxxiv

    CHAPTER 1 Thinking Critically With Psychological Science . . . 1

    CHAPTER 2 The Biology of Behavior . . . 35

    CHAPTER 3 Consciousness and the Two-Track Mind . . . 77

    CHAPTER 4 Developing Through the Life Span . . . 117

    CHAPTER 5 Gender and Sexuality . . . 163

    CHAPTER 6 Sensation and Perception . . . 191

    CHAPTER 7 Learning . . . 237

    CHAPTER 8 Memory . . . 271

    CHAPTER 9 Thinking, Language, and Intelligence . . . 305

    CHAPTER 10 Motivation and Emotion . . . 351

    CHAPTER 11 Stress, Health, and Human Flourishing . . . 389

    CHAPTER 12 Personality . . . 423

    CHAPTER 13 Social Psychology . . . 457

    CHAPTER 14 Psychological Disorders . . . 505

    CHAPTER 15 Therapy . . . 545

    APPENDIX A Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life . . . A-1

    APPENDIX B Psychology at Work . . . B-1

    APPENDIX C Subfi elds of Psychology . . . C-1

    APPENDIX D Complete Chapter Reviews . . . D-1

    APPENDIX E Answers to Experience the Testing Effect Questions . . . E-1

    Glossary . . . G-1

    References . . . R-1

    Name Index . . . NI-1

    Subject Index . . . SI-1 vii

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd viiMyersEx9e_FM.indd vii 10/25/12 11:03 AM10/25/12 11:03 AM



    Preface . . . xv

    Time Management: Or, How to Be a Great Student and Still Have a Life . . . xxxiv

    Thinking Critically With Psychological Science . . . 1

    CHAPTER1 What Is Psychology? . . . 2

    Psychology’s Roots . . . 2

    Contemporary Psychology . . . 5 Psychology’s Biggest Question . . . 5

    Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis . . . 6

    Psychology’s Subfi elds . . . 8

    The Need for Psychological Science . . . 10 What About Intuition and Common Sense? . . . 10

    The Scientifi c Attitude: Curious, Skeptical, and Humble . . . 13

    Critical Thinking . . . 15

    How Do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions? . . . 15

    The Scientifi c Method . . . 15

    Description . . . 17

    Correlation . . . 20

    Experimentation . . . 22

    Frequently Asked Questions About Psychology . . . 25

    Improve Your Retention—and Your Grades . . . 29

    The Biology of Behavior . . . 35

    CHAPTER2 Biology and Behavior . . . 36

    Neural Communication . . . 36 Neurons . . . 36

    The Neural Impulse . . . 37

    How Neurons Communicate . . . 38

    How Neurotransmitters Infl uence Us . . . 40

    The Nervous System . . . 41 The Peripheral Nervous System . . . 42

    The Central Nervous System . . . 44

    The Endocrine System . . . 45

    The Brain . . . 46 Older Brain Structures . . . 47

    CLOSE UP: The Tools of Discovery—Having Our Head Examined . . . . 48

    The Cerebral Cortex . . . 53

    Our Divided Brain . . . 59

    Right-Left Differences in the Intact Brain . . . 61

    Behavior Genetics: Predicting Individual Differences . . . 62

    Genes: Our Codes for Life . . . 62

    Twins and Adoption Studies . . . 63

    Gene-Environment Interaction . . . 67

    Evolutionary Psychology: Understanding Human Nature . . . 68

    Natural Selection and Adaptation . . . 69

    Evolutionary Success Helps Explain Similarities . . . 70



    MyersEx9e_FM.indd viiiMyersEx9e_FM.indd viii 10/25/12 11:03 AM10/25/12 11:03 AM




    Consciousness and the Two- Track Mind . . . 77

    CHAPTER3 The Brain and Consciousness . . . 78

    Dual Processing: The Two-Track Mind . . . 79

    Selective Attention . . . 80

    Sleep and Dreams . . . 83 Biological Rhythms and Sleep . . . 83

    Sleep Theories . . . 88

    Sleep Deprivation and Sleep Disorders . . . 89

    Dreams . . . 93

    Hypnosis . . . 97 Frequently Asked Questions About Hypnosis . . . 97

    Explaining the Hypnotized State . . . 98

    Drugs and Consciousness . . . 100 Tolerance, Dependence, and Addiction . . . 100

    THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Addiction . . . 101

    Types of Psychoactive Drugs . . . 102

    Infl uences on Drug Use . . . 109

    Developing Through the Life Span . . . 117

    CHAPTER4 Developmental Psychology’s Major Issues . . . 118

    Prenatal Development and the Newborn . . . 118 Conception . . . 118

    Prenatal Development . . . 119

    The Competent Newborn . . . 120

    Infancy and Childhood . . . 121 Physical Development . . . 121

    Cognitive Development . . . 124

    CLOSE UP: Autism and “Mind-Blindness” . . . 130

    Social Development . . . 132

    Refl ections on Nature and Nurture . . . 139

    Adolescence . . . 140 Physical Development . . . 140

    Cognitive Development . . . 141

    Social Development . . . 143

    THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: How Much Credit or Blame Do Parents Deserve? . . . 147

    Emerging Adulthood . . . 148

    Refl ections on Continuity and Stages . . . 149

    Adulthood . . . 150 Physical Development . . . 150

    Cognitive Development . . . 153

    Social Development . . . 154

    Refl ections on Stability and Change . . . 158

    Gender and Sexuality . . . 163

    CHAPTER5 Gender Development . . . 164

    Genes: How Are We Alike? How Do We Differ? . . . 164

    The Nature of Gender: Our Biology . . . 167

    The Nurture of Gender: Our Culture . . . 169

    Human Sexuality . . . 171 The Physiology of Sex . . . 171

    The Psychology of Sex . . . 175

    CLOSE UP: The Sexualization of Girls . . . 177

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd ixMyersEx9e_FM.indd ix 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM




    Sexual Orientation . . . 178 Environment and Sexual Orientation . . . 179

    Biology and Sexual Orientation . . . 180

    An Evolutionary Explanation of Human Sexuality . . . 183

    Gender Differences in Sexuality . . . 183

    Natural Selection and Mating Preferences . . . 184

    Critiquing the Evolutionary Perspective . . . 185

    Refl ections on Gender, Sexuality, and Nature–Nurture Interaction . . . 185

    Sensation and Perception . . . 191

    CHAPTER6 Basic Principles of Sensation and Perception . . . 192

    Transduction . . . 192

    Thresholds. . . 193

    THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Can Subliminal Messages Control Our Behavior? . . . 195

    Sensory Adaptation . . . 196

    Perceptual Set . . . 197

    Context Effects . . . 198

    Emotion and Motivation . . . 199

    Vision . . . 200 The Stimulus Input: Light Energy . . . 200

    The Eye . . . 200

    Visual Information Processing . . . 202

    Color Vision . . . 206

    Visual Organization . . . 208

    Visual Interpretation . . . 214

    Hearing . . . 216 The Stimulus Input: Sound Waves . . . 216

    The Ear. . . 216

    The Other Senses . . . 220 Touch . . . 220

    Pain . . . 220

    Taste . . . 224

    Smell . . . 225

    Body Position and Movement . . . 227

    Sensory Interaction . . . 227 THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: ESP—Perception

    Without Sensation? . . . 230

    Learning . . . 237

    CHAPTER7 How Do We Learn? . . . 238

    Classical Conditioning . . . 239 Pavlov’s Experiments . . . 240

    Pavlov’s Legacy . . . 244

    Operant Conditioning . . . 246 Skinner’s Experiments . . . 246

    Skinner’s Legacy . . . 253

    CLOSE UP: Training Our Partners . . . 255

    Contrasting Classical and Operant Conditioning . . . 255

    Biology, Cognition, and Learning . . . 256 Biological Constraints on Conditioning . . . 256

    Cognition’s Infl uence on Conditioning . . . 259

    Learning by Observation . . . 261 Mirrors and Imitation in the Brain . . . 262

    Applications of Observational Learning . . . 263

    THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Does Viewing Media Violence Trigger Violent Behavior? . . . 265

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xMyersEx9e_FM.indd x 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM




    Memory . . . 271

    CHAPTER8 Studying Memory . . . 272

    Memory Models . . . 273

    Building Memories: Encoding . . . 274 Dual-Track Memory: Effortful Versus Automatic

    Processing . . . 274

    Automatic Processing and Implicit Memories . . . 275

    Effortful Processing and Explicit Memories . . . 275

    Memory Storage . . . 280 Retaining Information in the Brain . . . 281

    Synaptic Changes . . . 283

    Retrieval: Getting Information Out . . . 285 Measuring Retention . . . 285

    Retrieval Cues . . . 286

    Forgetting . . . 289 Forgetting and the Two-Track Mind . . . 290

    Encoding Failure . . . 291

    Storage Decay . . . 291

    Retrieval Failure . . . 292

    Memory Construction Errors . . . 294 Misinformation and Imagination Effects . . . 295

    Source Amnesia . . . 296

    Discerning True and False Memories . . . 297

    Children’s Eyewitness Recall . . . 297

    Repressed or Constructed Memories of Abuse? . . . 298

    Improving Memory . . . 299

    Thinking, Language, and Intelligence . . . 305

    CHAPTER9 Thinking . . . 306

    Concepts . . . 306

    Problem Solving: Strategies and Obstacles . . . 307

    Forming Good and Bad Decisions and Judgments . . . 308

    THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: The Fear Factor—Why We Fear the Wrong Things . . . 310

    Thinking Creatively . . . 314

    CLOSE UP: Fostering Your Own Creativity . . . 315

    Do Other Species Share Our Cognitive Skills? . . . 316

    Language . . . 318 Language Structure . . . 318

    Language Development . . . 319

    The Brain and Language . . . 322

    Do Other Species Have Language? . . . 323

    Thinking and Language . . . 326 Language Infl uences Thinking . . . 326

    Thinking in Images . . . 328

    Intelligence . . . 329 What Is Intelligence? . . . 329

    Assessing Intelligence . . . 333

    Aging and Intelligence . . . 337

    CLOSE UP: Extremes of Intelligence . . . 338

    Genetic and Environmental Infl uences on Intelligence . . . 339

    Group Differences in Intelligence Test Scores . . . 342

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xiMyersEx9e_FM.indd xi 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM



    xii CONTENTS

    Motivation and Emotion . . . 351

    CHAPTER10 Motivational Concepts . . . 352

    Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology . . . 352

    Drives and Incentives . . . 353

    Optimum Arousal . . . 353

    A Hierarchy of Motives . . . 355

    Hunger . . . 356 The Physiology of Hunger . . . 357

    The Psychology of Hunger . . . 359

    Obesity and Weight Control . . . 361

    CLOSE UP: Waist Management . . . 363

    The Need to Belong . . . 364 The Benefi ts of Belonging . . . 364

    The Pain of Being Shut Out . . . 365

    Connecting and Social Networking . . . 367

    CLOSE UP: Managing Your Social Networking . . . 369

    Achievement Motivation . . . 370

    Emotion: Arousal, Behavior, and Cognition . . . 371

    Historical Emotion Theories . . . 372

    Schachter–Singer Two Factor Theory: Arousal + Label = Emotion . . . 373

    Zajonc, LeDoux, and Lazarus: Does Cognition Always Precede Emotion? . . . 374

    Embodied Emotion . . . 376 The Basic Emotions . . . 376

    Emotions and the Autonomic Nervous System . . . 377

    The Physiology of Emotions . . . 377

    THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Lie Detection . . . 379

    Expressed and Experienced Emotion . . . 378 Detecting Emotion in Others . . . 379

    Gender and Emotion . . . 381

    Culture and Emotion . . . 382

    The Effects of Facial Expressions . . . 384

    Stress, Health, and Human Flourishing . . . 389

    CHAPTER11 Stress and Health . . . 390

    Stress: Some Basic Concepts . . . 390

    Stress and Illness . . . 394

    CLOSE UP: Tips for Handling Anger . . . 398

    Coping With Stress . . . 401 Personal Control . . . 401

    Optimism Versus Pessimism . . . 404

    Social Support . . . 405

    CLOSE UP: Pets Are Friends, Too . . . 408

    Reducing Stress . . . 407 Aerobic Exercise . . . 407

    Relaxation and Meditation . . . 409

    Faith Communities and Health . . . 410

    Happiness . . . 412 Positive Psychology . . . 413

    What Affects Our Well-Being? . . . 414

    What Predicts Our Happiness Levels? . . . 417

    CLOSE UP: Want to Be Happier? . . . 418

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xiiMyersEx9e_FM.indd xii 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM



    CONTENTS xiii

    Personality . . . 423

    CHAPTER12 The Psychodynamic Theories . . . 424

    Freud’s Psychoanalytic Perspective: Exploring the Unconscious . . . 424

    The Neo-Freudian and Psychodynamic Theorists . . . 424

    Assessing Unconscious Processes . . . 424

    Evaluating Freud’s Psychoanalytic Perspective and Modern Views of the Unconscious . . . 424

    Humanistic Theories . . . 432 Abraham Maslow’s Self-Actualizing Person . . . 433

    Carl Rogers’ Person-Centered Perspective . . . 433

    Assessing the Self . . . 434

    Evaluating Humanistic Theories . . . 434

    Trait Theories . . . 435 Exploring Traits . . . 436

    Assessing Traits . . . 437

    THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: How to Be a “Successful” Astrologer or Palm Reader . . . 438

    The Big Five Factors . . . 439

    Evaluating Trait Theories . . . 441

    Social-Cognitive Theories . . . 443 Reciprocal Infl uences . . . 443

    Assessing Behavior in Situations . . . 445

    Evaluating Social-Cognitive Theories . . . 445

    Exploring the Self . . . 446 The Benefi ts of Self-Esteem . . . 447

    Self-Serving Bias . . . 448

    Culture and the Self . . . 450

    Social Psychology . . . 457

    CHAPTER13 Social Thinking . . . 458

    The Fundamental Attribution Error . . . 458

    Attitudes and Actions . . . 460

    Social Infl uence . . . 463 Cultural Infl uences . . . 463

    Conformity: Complying With Social Pressures . . . 465

    Obedience: Following Orders . . . 467

    Group Behavior . . . 471

    Social Relations . . . 475 Prejudice . . . 476

    CLOSE UP: Automatic Prejudice . . . 477

    Aggression . . . 481

    Attraction . . . 487

    CLOSE UP: Online Matchmaking and Speed Dating . . . 488

    Altruism . . . 493

    Confl ict and Peacemaking . . . 496

    Psychological Disorders . . . 505

    CHAPTER14 What Is a Psychological Disorder? . . . 506

    Understanding Psychological Disorders . . . 506

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xiiiMyersEx9e_FM.indd xiii 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM



    xiv CONTENTS

    THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: ADHD—Normal High Energy or Genuine Disorder? . . . 507

    Classifying Disorders—and Labeling People . . . 509

    THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Insanity and Responsibility . . . 512

    Anxiety Disorders . . . 512 Generalized Anxiety Disorder . . . 513

    Panic Disorder . . . 513

    Phobias . . . 513

    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder . . . 514

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder . . . 515

    Understanding Anxiety Disorders . . . 516

    Mood Disorders . . . 519 Major Depressive Disorder . . . 520

    Bipolar Disorder . . . 520

    Understanding Mood Disorders . . . 521

    CLOSE UP: Suicide and Self-Injury . . . 524

    Schizophrenia . . . 528 Symptoms of Schizophrenia . . . 528

    Onset and Development of Schizophrenia . . . 529

    Understanding Schizophrenia . . . 530

    Other Disorders . . . 534 Dissociative Disorders . . . 534

    Eating Disorders . . . 536

    Personality Disorders . . . 537

    Rates of Psychological Disorders . . . 540

    Therapy . . . 545

    CHAPTER15 Treating Psychological Disorders . . . 546

    The Psychological Therapies . . . 546 Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic

    Therapy . . . 547

    Humanistic Therapies . . . 548

    Behavior Therapies . . . 550

    Cognitive Therapies . . . 554

    Group and Family Therapies . . . 557

    Evaluating Psychotherapies . . . 559 Is Psychotherapy Effective? . . . 560

    Which Psychotherapies Work Best? . . . 562

    Evaluating Alternative Therapies . . . 563

    How Do Psychotherapies Help People? . . . 565

    Culture and Values in Psychotherapy . . . 566

    CLOSE UP: A Consumer’s Guide to Mental Health Professionals . . . 567

    The Biomedical Therapies . . . 568 Drug Therapies . . . 568

    Brain Stimulation . . . 571

    Psychosurgery . . . 574

    Therapeutic Lifestyle Change . . . 574

    Preventing Psychological Disorders . . . 576 Resilience . . . 576

    Creating Healthy Environments . . . 577

    APPENDIX A: Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life . . . A-1

    APPENDIX B: Psychology at Work . . . B-1

    APPENDIX C: Subfi elds of Psychology . . . C-1

    APPENDIX D: Complete Chapter Reviews . . . D-1

    APPENDIX E: Answers to Experience the Testing Effect Questions . . . E-1

    Glossary . . . G-1

    References . . . R-1

    Name Index . . . NI-1

    Subject Index . . . SI-1

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xivMyersEx9e_FM.indd xiv 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM




    Throughout its nine editions, my unwavering vision for Exploring Psychology has been to merge rigorous science with a broad human perspective that engages both mind and heart. I aim to offer a state-of-the-art introduction to psychological science that speaks to students’ needs and interests. I aspire to help students understand and appreciate the wonders of their everyday lives. And I seek to convey the inquisitive spirit with which psychologists do psychology.

    I am genuinely enthusiastic about psychology and its applicability to our lives. Psychological science has the potential to expand our minds and enlarge our hearts. By studying and applying its tools, ideas, and insights, we can supplement our intuition with critical thinking, restrain our judgmentalism with compas- sion, and replace our illusions with understanding. By the time students complete this guided tour of psychology, they will also, I hope, have a deeper understand- ing of our moods and memories, about the reach of our unconscious, about how we f lourish and struggle, about how we perceive our physical and social worlds, and about how our biology and culture in turn shape us. (See TABLES 1 and 2, next page.)

    Believing with Thoreau that “anything living is easily and naturally expressed in popular language,” I seek to communicate psychology’s scholarship with crisp narra- tive and vivid storytelling. “A writer’s job,” says my friend Mary Pipher, “is to tell stories that connect readers to all the people on Earth, to show these people as the complicated human beings they really are, with histories, families, emotions, and legitimate needs.” Writing as a solo author, I hope to tell psychology’s story in a way that is warmly personal as well as rigorously scientific. I love to ref lect on connec- tions between psychology and other realms, such as literature, philosophy, history, sports, religion, politics, and popular culture. And I love to provoke thought, to play with words, and to laugh. For his pioneering 1891 Principles of Psychology, William James sought “humor and pathos.” And so do I.

    I am grateful for the privilege of assisting with the teaching of this mind- expanding discipline to so many students, in so many countries, through so many different languages. To be entrusted with discerning and communicating psychol- ogy’s insights is both an exciting honor and a great responsibility.

    Creating this book is a team sport. Like so many human achievements, it is the product of a collective intelligence. Woodrow Wilson spoke for me: “I not only use all the brains I have, but all I can borrow.” The thousands of instructors and millions of students across the globe who have taught or studied (or both!) with this book have contributed immensely to its development. Much of this contribu- tion has occurred spontaneously, through correspondence and conversations. For this edition, we also formally involved 1061 researchers and teaching psycholo- gists, and 251 students, in our efforts to gather accurate and up-to-date information about the f ield of psychology and the content, study aids, and supplements needs of instructors and students in the introductory course. We look forward to continuing feedback as we strive, over future editions, to create an ever better book and teach- ing package.

    What’s NEW? This ninth edition is the most carefully reworked and extensively updated of all the revisions to date. This new edition features improvements to the organization and presentation, especially to our system of supporting student learning and remembering.


    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xvMyersEx9e_FM.indd xv 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM



    xvi PREFACE

    TABLE 1 Evolutionary Psychology and Behavior Genetics

    The evolutionary perspective is covered on the following pages:

    TABLE 2 Neuroscience

    In addition to the coverage found in Chapter 2, neuroscience can be found on the following pages:

    Aggression, pp. 482–483 Aging: physical exercise and the brain, p. 152 Animal language, pp. 316–317 Antisocial personality disorder, pp. 538–539 Arousal, pp. 175–176 Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    (ADHD) and the brain, p. 507 Autism, pp. 130–131 Automatic prejudice: amygdala, p. 477 Biofeedback, p. 409 Biopsychosocial approach, pp. 6–7

    aggression, p. 487 aging, pp. 152, 157, 291 dementia and Alzheimer’s, p. 284 development, pp. 186–187 dreams, pp. 93–94 drug use, pp. 109–112 emotion, pp. 141, 283, 374–375, 378,

    381–382 hypnosis, pp. 99–100 learning, pp. 256–260 pain, pp. 222–223 personality, p. 444 psychological disorders, p. 508 sleep, pp. 83–88 therapeutic lifestyle change, pp. 574–575

    Brain development: adolescence, p. 140 experience and, pp. 122–123 infancy and childhood, p. 124 sexual differentiation in utero, p. 169

    Brain stimulation therapies, pp. 572–573

    Cognitive neuroscience, pp. 4, 78 Drug dependence, pp. 109–111 Emotion and cognition, pp. 371–372 Emotional intelligence and brain damage,

    p. 333 Fear learning, p. 518 Fetal alcohol syndrome and brain abnor-

    malities, p. 120 Hallucinations: pp. 107–108 Hallucinations and:

    near-death experiences, pp. 107–108 schizophrenia, p. 529 sleep, p. 95

    Hormones and: abuse, pp. 136–137 appetite, pp. 357–358 development, p. 167 in adolescents, pp. 167, 140–141 of sexual characteristics, pp. 167–168 emotion, pp. 378–379 gender, p. 167 sex, pp. 150–151 sexual behavior, pp. 171–173 stress, pp. 377, 391–393, 394–396, 405 weight control, p. 359

    Hunger, p. 357 Insight, pp. 307–308 Intelligence, p. 334

    creativity, pp. 314–315 twins, pp. 339–340

    Language, pp. 318, 322–323 and deafness, p. 322 and thinking in images, p. 328

    Light-exposure therapy: brain scans, p. 564 Meditation, pp. 409–410 Memory:

    emotional memories, p. 283 explicit memories, pp. 281–282 implicit memories, pp. 282–283 physical storage of, pp. 280–282 and sleep, pp. 88, 95 and synaptic changes, pp. 283–285

    Mirror neurons, pp. 262–263 Neuroscience perspective, defined, p. 7 Neurotransmitters and:

    anxiety disorders, pp. 518, 569 biomedical therapy:

    depression, pp. 523–525, 569–570 ECT, pp. 571–572 schizophrenia, pp. 530, 568–569

    child abuse, p. 137 cognitive-behavioral therapy: obsessive-

    compulsive disorder, p. 557 depression, pp. 523–525 drugs, pp. 100, 102 exercise, p. 407 narcolepsy, pp. 92–93 schizophrenia, pp. 530, 532

    Observational learning and brain imaging, p. 261

    Optimum arousal: brain mechanisms for rewards, pp. 353–355

    Orgasm, p. 173 Pain, p. 220

    phantom limb pain, p. 222 virtual reality, pp. 223–224

    Parallel vs. serial processing, p. 205 Perception:

    brain damage and, p. 205 color vision, pp. 206–208 feature detection, p. 204 transduction, p. 192 visual information processing,

    pp. 200–202 Perceptual organization, pp. 208–211 Personality and brain-imaging, p. 437 Post-traumatic stress disorder

    (PTSD) and the limbic system, pp. 515–516

    Psychosurgery: lobotomy, p. 574 Schizophrenia and brain abnormalities,

    pp. 530–531, 532 Sensation:

    body position and movement, p. 227 deafness, pp. 217–218 hearing, pp. 216–217 sensory adaptation, p. 196 smell, pp. 225–226 taste, pp. 224–225 touch, p. 220 vision, p. 200

    Sexual orientation, pp. 180, 182 Sleep:

    cognitive development and, p. 96 memory and, p. 88 recuperation during, p. 88

    Smell and emotion, p. 226 Unconscious mind, pp. 431–432

    Aging, pp. 151–152 Anxiety disorders, p. 518 Biological predispositions:

    in learning, pp. 256–260 in operant conditioning, pp. 258–260

    Brainstem, p. 47 Consciousness, p. 78 Darwin, Charles, p. 6 Depression and light exposure therapy, p. 564 Emotion, effects of facial expressions and,

    pp. 384–385 Emotional expression, pp. 382–383 Evolutionary perspective, defined, p. 7 Exercise, pp. 407–408 Fear, p. 310 Feature detection, p. 204 Hearing, p. 216 Hunger and taste preference, p. 359 Instincts, p. 352 Intelligence, pp. 329–331, 333–334,

    343–346 Language, pp. 318–319, 320–322 Love, pp. 154–156 Math and spatial ability, pp. 342–343 Mating preferences, pp. 184–185 Menopause, pp. 150–151 Need to belong, p. 364 Obesity, p. 461

    Overconfidence, pp. 311–312 Perceptual adaptation, p. 215 Puberty, onset of, pp. 148–149 Sensation, p. 192 Sensory adaptation, p. 196 Sexual orientation, p. 181 Sexuality, pp. 173, 183–184 Sleep, pp. 84, 88 Smell, pp. 225–226 Taste, pp. 224–225

    See also Chapter 2, The Biology of Behavior.

    Abuse, intergenerational transmission of, p. 264

    Adaptability, p. 53 Aggression, pp. 579–580

    intergenerational transmission of, p. 264 Autism, pp. 130–131 Behavior genetics perspective, p. 7 Biological perspective, p. 36 Brain plasticity, p. 58 Continuity and stages, p. 149 Deprivation of attachment, p. 136 Depth perception, p. 210 Development, p. 119 Drives and incentives, p. 353 Drug dependence, p. 110 Drug use, pp. 109–112 Eating disorders, p. 536 Epigenetics, p. 120 Happiness, pp. 412–413 Hunger and taste preference, pp. 359–360 Intelligence:

    Down syndrome, pp. 338–339 genetic and environmental influences,

    pp. 339–346 Learning, pp. 256–257, 258–259 Motor development, p. 123 Nature–nurture, pp. 5–6

    twins, p. 6

    Obesity and weight control, pp. 361–362 Parenting styles, p. 138 Perception, pp. 214–215 Personality traits, p. 437–440 Psychological disorders and:

    ADHD, p. 507 anxiety disorders, p. 517 biopsychosocial approach, p. 508 depression, p. 523 insanity and responsibility, p. 512 mood disorders, pp. 523–524 personality disorders, pp. 538–539 post-traumatic stress syndrome,

    pp. 515–516 schizophrenia, pp. 531–533

    Reward deficiency syndrome, p. 52 Romantic love, pp. 154–156 Sexual disorders, pp. 173–174 Sexual orientation, p. 180 Sexuality, p. 173 Sleep patterns, p. 87 Smell, pp. 225–226 Stress, personality, and illness, pp. 397–399

    managing stress with exercise, pp. 407–409 Traits, pp. 341-342

    See also Chapter 2, The Biology of Behavior.


    Behavior genetics is covered on the following pages:

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xviMyersEx9e_FM.indd xvi 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM



    PREFACE xvii

    NEW Study System Follows Best Practices From Learning and Memory Research The new learning system harnesses the testing effect, which documents the benefits of actively retrieving information through self-testing (FIGURE 1). Thus, each chap- ter now offers 15 to 20 new Retrieve It questions interspersed throughout. Creating these desirable difficulties for students along the way optimizes the testing effect, as does immediate feedback (via inverted answers beneath each question).

    In addition, each main section of text begins with numbered questions that establish learning objectives and direct student reading. The Chapter Review section repeats these questions as a further self-testing opportunity (with answers in the Complete Chapter Reviews appendix). The Chapter Review section also offers a page-referenced list of key terms and concepts, and new Experience the Testing Effect questions in multiple formats to promote optimal retention.

    FIGURE 1 Testing effect For suggestions of how students may apply the testing effect to their own learning, watch this 5-minute YouTube animation:

    Nearly 1000 New Research Citations My ongoing scrutiny of dozens of scientific periodicals and science news sources, enhanced by commissioned reviews and countless e-mails from instructors and students, enables my integrating our field’s most important, thought-provoking, and student-relevant new discoveries. Part of the pleasure that sustains this work is learning something new every day! (For a complete list of significant changes to the content, see

    Reorganized Chapters In addition to the new study aids and updated coverage, I’ve introduced the following organizational changes:

    • Chapter 1 concludes with a new section, “Improve Your Retention—And Your Grades.” This guide will help students replace ineffective and inefficient old habits with new habits that increase retention and success.

    • The contents of the previous edition’s Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity chap- ter are now integrated throughout the text, including in Chapters 2, 4, 5, 12, and 13. (See Table 4 on page xxi.)

    • Chapter 4, Developing Through the Life Span, has been shortened by moving the Aging and Intelligence coverage to Chapter 9, Thinking, Language, and Intelligence.

    • NEW Chapter 5, Gender and Sexuality, includes new and significantly reorganized discussions.

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xviiMyersEx9e_FM.indd xvii 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM



    xviii PREFACE

    • Chapter 6, Sensation and Perception, now covers both topics in a more efficient and integrated fashion (rather than covering sensation first, then perception). Coverage of the deaf experience is now in Chapter 9, Thinking, Language, and Intelligence.

    • Chapter 7, Learning, now has a separate Biology, Cognition, and Learning section that more fully explores the biological and cognitive constraints on learning.

    • Chapter 8, Memory, follows a new format, and more clearly explains how differ- ent brain networks process and retain memories. I worked closely with Janie Wilson (Professor of Psychology at Georgia Southern University and Vice President for Pro- gramming of the Society for the Teaching of Psychology) in this chapter’s revision.

    • Chapter 10 now combines Motivation with Emotion. • Chapter 11, Stress, Health, and Human Flourishing, now includes discussion of

    positive psychology, well-being, and personal control.

    • Chapter 12, Personality, offers improved coverage of modern-day psychodynamic approaches, which are now more clearly distinguished from their historical Freud- ian roots.

    • The Social Psychology chapter now follows the Personality chapter. • Chapter 14, Psychological Disorders, now includes coverage of eating disorders,

    previously in the Motivation chapter.

    Clinical Chapters Were Carefully Reviewed and Signifi cantly Improved With helpful guidance from clinical psychologist colleagues, I have strengthened the clinical perspective, which has improved the Personality, Psychological Disorders,

    and Therapy chapters, among others. For example, I cover problem- focused and emotion-focused coping strategies and the relationship of psychotherapy to cancer survival in the Stress, Health, and Human Flourishing chapter, and the Intelligence chapter describes how psychol- ogists use intelligence tests in clinical settings. Material from today’s positive psychology is also woven throughout (see TABLE 3).

    In addition, the Personality and Therapy chapters now more clearly distinguish between historical psychoanalysis and modern-day psycho- dynamic theories.

    New Time Management Section for Students To help students maximize their reading, studying, and exam prepara- tion efforts, a new student preface offers time management guidance.

    Beautiful New Design and Contemporary New Photo Program This new, more open and colorful design, chock full of new photos and illustrations, provides a modern visual context for the book’s up-to- date coverage.

    Dedicated Versions of Next-Generation Media This ninth edition is accompanied by the dramatically enhanced Psych- Portal, which adds new features (LearningCurve formative assess- ment activities and Launch Pad carefully crafted prebuilt assignments) while incorporating the full range of Worth’s psychology media products (Video Tool Kit, PsychInvestigator, PsychSim). (For details, see p. xxv.)

    TABLE 3 Examples of Positive Psychology

    Coverage of positive psychology topics can be found in the following chapters: Topic Chapter Altruism/Compassion 4, 9, 12, 13, 15 Coping 11 Courage 13 Creativity 8, 12, 13 Emotional intelligence 9, 13 Empathy 4, 7, 11, 13, 15 Flow 10 Gratitude 10, 11, 13 Happiness/Life Satisfaction 4, 10, 11 Humility 13 Humor 11, 13 Justice 13 Leadership 10, 12, 13, App B Love 4, 5, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 Morality 4 Optimism 11, 12 Personal control 11 Resilience 4, 11, 13, 15 Self-discipline 4, 10, 12 Self-efficacy 11, 12 Self-esteem 10, 12 Spirituality 11, 13 Toughness (grit) 9, 10 Wisdom 3, 4, 9, 12, 13

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xviiiMyersEx9e_FM.indd xviii 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM



    PREFACE xix

    What Continues? Eight Guiding Principles Despite all the exciting changes, this new edition retains its predecessors’ voice, as well as much of the content and organization. It also retains the goals—the guiding principles—that have animated the previous eight editions:

    Facilitating the Learning Experience 1. To teach critical thinking By presenting research as intellectual detective

    work, I illustrate an inquiring, analytical mindset. Whether students are studying development, cognition, or social behavior, they will become involved in, and see the rewards of, critical reasoning. Moreover, they will discover how an empirical approach can help them evaluate competing ideas and claims for highly publicized phenomena—ranging from ESP and alternative therapies, to astrology and repressed and recovered memories.

    2. To integrate principles and applications Throughout—by means of anec- dotes, case histories, and the posing of hypothetical situations—I relate the fi ndings of basic research to their applications and implications. Where psychology can illu- minate pressing human issues—be they racism and sexism, health and happiness, or violence and war—I have not hesitated to shine its light.

    3. To reinforce learning at every step Everyday examples and rhetorical ques- tions encourage students to process the material actively. Concepts presented earlier are frequently applied, and reinforced, in later chapters. For instance, in Chapter 3, students learn that much of our information processing occurs outside of our con- scious awareness. Ensuing chapters drive home this concept. Numbered Learning Objective Questions at the beginning of each main section, Retrieve It self-tests throughout each chapter, a marginal glossary, and Chapter Review key terms lists and self-tests help students learn and retain important concepts and terminology.

    Demonstrating the Science of Psychology 4. To exemplify the process of inquiry I strive to show students not just the out-

    come of research, but how the research process works. Throughout, the book tries to excite the reader’s curiosity. It invites readers to imagine themselves as partici- pants in classic experiments. Several chapters introduce research stories as mysteries that progressively unravel as one clue after another falls into place.

    5. To be as up-to-date as possible Few things dampen students’ interest as quickly as the sense that they are reading stale news. While retaining psychology’s classic studies and concepts, I also present the discipline’s most important recent developments. More than 900 references in this edition are dated 2009–2012. Like- wise, the new photos and everyday examples are drawn from today’s world.

    6. To put facts in the service of concepts My intention is not to fi ll students’ intellectual fi le drawers with facts, but to reveal psychology’s major concepts—to teach students how to think, and to offer psychological ideas worth thinking about. In each chapter, I place emphasis on those concepts I hope students will carry with them long after they complete the course. Always, I try to follow Albert Einstein’s purported dictum that “everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler.” Learning Objective Questions and Retrieve It questions throughout each chapter help students focus on the most important concepts.

    Promoting Big Ideas and Broadened Horizons 7. To enhance comprehension by providing continuity Many chapters

    have a signifi cant issue or theme that links subtopics, forming a thread that ties the chapter together. The Learning chapter conveys the idea that bold

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xixMyersEx9e_FM.indd xix 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM



    xx PREFACE

    thinkers can serve as intellectual pioneers. The Thinking, Language, and Intelli- gence chapter raises the issue of human rationality and irrationality. The Psycho- logical Disorders chapter conveys empathy for, and understanding of, troubled lives. Other threads, such as cognitive neuroscience, dual processing, and cultural and gender diversity, weave throughout the whole book, and students hear a consistent voice.

    8. To convey respect for human unity and diversity Throughout the book, readers will see evidence of our human kinship—our shared biological heritage, our common mechanisms of seeing and learning, hungering and feeling, loving and hating. They will also better understand the dimensions of our diversity—our individual diversity in development and aptitudes, temperament and personality, and disorder and health; and our cultural diversity in attitudes and expressive styles, child-rearing and care for the elderly, and life priorities.

    Continually Improving Cultural and Gender Diversity Coverage This edition presents an even more thoroughly cross-cultural perspective on psychology (TABLE 4)—ref lected in research findings and text and photo exam- ples. New Chapter 5, Gender and Sexuality, allows a separate-chapter focus on the psychology of women and men, though these topics are also thoroughly integrated throughout the text (see TABLE 5). In addition, I am working to offer a world-based psychology for our worldwide student readership. Thus, I continually search the world for research findings and text and photo examples, conscious that readers may be in Melbourne, Sheffield, Vancouver, or Nairobi. North American and European examples come easily, given that I reside in the United States, maintain contact with friends and colleagues in Canada, subscribe to several European periodicals, and live periodically in the U.K. This edition, for example, offers many dozens of Canadian, British, and Australian and New Zealand examples. We are all citizens of a shrink- ing world, thanks to increased migration and the growing global economy. Thus, American students, too, benefit from information and examples that international- ize their world-consciousness. And if psychology seeks to explain human behavior (not just American or Canadian or Australian behavior), the broader the scope of studies presented, the more accurate is our picture of this world’s people. My aim is to expose all students to the world beyond their own culture, and I continue to welcome input and suggestions from all readers. Discussion of the relevance of cultural and gender diversity begins on the first page of the first chapter and contin- ues throughout the text.

    Strong Critical Thinking Coverage I aim to introduce students to critical thinking throughout the book. Revised Learning Objective Questions at the beginning of each main section, and Retrieve It questions throughout each chapter, encourage critical reading to glean an understanding of important concepts. This ninth edition also includes the following opportunities for students to learn or practice their critical think- ing skills.

    • Chapter 1, Thinking Critically With Psychological Science, introduces students to psychology’s research methods, emphasizing the fallacies of our everyday intuition and common sense and, thus, the need for psychological science. Critical thinking is introduced as a key term in this chapter (p. 15). Appendix A, Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life, encourages students to “focus on thinking smarter by applying simple statistical principles to everyday reasoning.”

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xxMyersEx9e_FM.indd xx 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM



    PREFACE xxi

    TABLE 4 Culture and Multicultural Experience

    Culture and multicultural experience is covered on the following pages:

    TABLE 5 The Psychology of Men and Women

    The psychology of men and women is covered on the following pages:

    Absolute thresholds, pp. 193–194 ADHD, p. 607 Adulthood: physical changes, pp. 150–151 Aggression, pp. 481–483

    father absence, p. 484 pornography, pp. 484–485 rape, pp. 484, 485

    Alcohol: and addiction, p. 103 and sexual aggression, pp. 102–103 use, pp. 102–103

    Altruism, pp. 493–494 Antisocial personality disorder,

    pp. 538–539 Attraction, pp. 487–491 Autism, p. 140 Behavioral effects of gender, pp. 26–27 Biological predispositions in color

    perceptions, p. 257 Biological sex/gender, pp. 167–168 Bipolar disorder, pp. 520–521 Body image, pp. 536–537 Color vision, pp. 206–208 Conformity/obedience, p. 467–470 Dating, p. 488 Depression, pp. 520, 521–522

    learned helplessness, p. 526 Dream content, pp. 93–94 Drug use:

    biological influences, p. 110

    psychological/social-cultural influences, pp. 110–112

    Eating disorders, pp. 536–537 Emotion-detecting ability, pp. 379–381,

    381–382 Empty nest, p. 156 Father care, p. 135 Father presence, p. 177 Freud’s views:

    evaluating, pp. 430–432 identification/gender identity,

    pp. 426–427 Oedipus/Electra complexes, p. 426 penis envy, p. 428

    Fundamental attribution error, pp. 458–459

    Gender: and anxiety, p. 513 and child-rearing, pp. 170–171 development, p. 164 “missing women,” p. 477 prejudice, pp. 476–478 roles, pp. 169–170 similarities/differences, pp. 164–166

    Gendered brain, pp. 167, 175, 182–183 Generic pronoun “he,” p. 327 Grief, pp. 157–158 Group polarization, p. 473 Happiness, pp. 417–418 Hearing loss, pp. 217–218, 322

    Hormones and: aggression, p. 482 sexual behavior, pp. 171–172 sexual development, pp. 140–141, 167 testosterone-replacement therapy, p. 172

    Intelligence: bias, p. 345 stereotype threat, pp. 345–346

    Leadership: transformational, p. B12 Losing weight, p. 363 Love, pp. 154–156, 491–493 Marriage, p. 155, 405 Maturation, pp. 140–141 Menarche, p. 140 Menopause, p. 151 Midlife crisis, p. 154 Obesity:

    genetic factors, pp. 361–362 health risks, p. 361

    Observational learning: sexually violent media, p. 265 TV’s influence, pp. 263–264

    Pain sensitivity, p. 221 Pornography, pp. 175–176 Prejudice, p. 306 Psychological disorders, rates of, p. 540 PTSD: development of, pp. 515–516 Rape, p. 481 Religiosity and life expectancy, pp. 410, 412 REM sleep, arousal in, p. 86

    Romantic love, pp. 491–493 Savant syndrome, p. 331 Schizophrenia, p. 528 Self-injury, p. 525 Sense of smell, pp. 225–226 Sexual attraction, pp. 184–185 Sexual dysfunctions, pp. 173–174 Sexual fantasies, p. 176 Sexual orientation, pp. 178–173 Sexuality, pp. 175–176 Sexuality:

    adolescent, pp. 176–178 evolutionary explanation, pp. 183–184 external stimuli, pp. 175–176 imagined stimuli, p. 176

    Sexualization of girls, p. 177 Stereotyping, p. 198 Stress and:

    AIDS, p. 396 depression, pp. 399–400 health, and sexual abuse, p. 407 heart disease, pp. 397–398 immune system, pp. 394–396 response to, pp. 392–394

    Suicide, pp. 524–525 Teratogens: alcohol consumption, p. 120 Women in psychology’s history, p. 3

    See also Chapter 5, Gender and Sexuality, and Chapter 13, Social Psychology.

    Aggression, p. 484 and video games, pp. 265, 485–486

    Aging population, pp. 151–152 AIDS, p. 396 Anger, pp. 398–399 Animal research ethics, pp. 27–28 Attraction: love and marriage,

    pp. 492–493 Attractiveness, pp. 184–185, 490 Attribution: political effects of, p. 459 Behavioral effects of culture, pp. 26–27,

    67–68 Body ideal, pp. 536–537 Body image, pp. 536–537 Categorization, p. 306 Conformity, pp. 465, 467 Corporal punishment practices, pp. 251–252 Cultural norms, pp. 164, 464 Culture:

    context effects, pp. 198–199 definition, p. 463 variation over time, p. 464

    Culture and the self, pp. 450–451 Culture shock, p. 391 Deaf culture, pp. 58, 61, 320, 321–322 Development:

    adolescence, p. 140 attachment, p. 137 child-rearing, pp. 138–139 cognitive development, p. 129 moral development, pp. 142–143 parenting styles, pp. 138–139 social development, pp. 132–133

    Drug use, p. 112 Emotion:

    emotion-detecting ability, pp. 379–381 Emotion: expressing, pp. 381–382,

    383–385 Enemy perceptions, p. 498 Fear, p. 310–311 Flow, p. B1 Fundamental attribution error, p. 458 Gender:

    cultural norms, pp. 164, 169 roles, p. 169–170 social power, p. 165

    Grief, expressing, pp. 157–158 Happiness, pp. 416–418 Hindsight bias, pp. 11–12 History of psychology, pp. 2–5 Homosexuality, views on, p. 178 Human diversity/kinship, pp. 26–27,

    463–464 Identity: forming social, pp. 144–145 Individualism/collectivism, p. 451 Intelligence, pp. 329–330, 343, 344

    bias, p. 345 Down syndrome, p. 338 nutrition and, p. 344

    Language, pp. 319–321, 326–327, 464 critical periods, pp. 321–322 monolingual/bilingual, p. 327 universal grammar, p. 321

    Leaving the nest, pp. 148–149 Life satisfaction, p. 415 Life span and well-being, pp. 156–157

    Loop systems for hearing assistance, p. B14

    Management styles, pp. B11–B13 Marriage, p. 155 Meditation, pp. 409–410 Memory, encoding, pp. 276–277 Menopause, p. 151 Mental illness rate, pp. 540–541 Motivating achievement, pp. B7–B8 Motivation: hierarchy of needs, p. 355 Need to belong, pp. 364–365 Neurotransmitters: curare, pp. 39–41 Obesity, pp. 361–362, 362–363 Observational learning: television and

    aggression, p. 264 Organ donation, pp. 312–313 Pace of life, pp. 19, 464 Pain: perception of, pp. 220–225 Parent and peer relationships,

    pp. 145–146 Participative management, pp. B11–B12 Peacemaking:

    conciliation, p. 500 contact, p. 499 cooperation, pp. 499–500

    Peer influence, pp. 145–147 Power of individuals, pp. 474–475 Prejudice, pp. 24, 29, 476–481

    “missing women,” p. 477 Prejudice prototypes, p. 306 Psychological disorders:

    cultural norms, p. 506 dissociative personality disorder, p. 534

    eating disorders, pp. 508, 536–537 schizophrenia, pp. 508, 531–532 suicide, pp. 524–525 susto, p. 508 taijin-kyofusho, p. 508

    Psychotherapy: culture and values in, pp. 566–567 EMDR training, p. 563

    Puberty and adult independence, pp. 148–149

    Self-esteem, p. 417 Self-serving bias, pp. 448–449 Sex drive, p. 184 Sexual orientation, pp. 178–183 Similarities, pp. 70–72 Sleep patterns, pp. 87–88 Social clock, p. 154 Social loafing, pp. 471–472 Social networking, pp. 367–368 Social-cultural perspective, pp. 7–11 Spirituality: Israeli kibbutz communities,

    pp. 410–411 Stress:

    adjusting to a new culture, p. 391 health consequences, p. 401 racism and, p. 392

    Taste preferences, pp. 359–360 Teen sexuality, pp. 176–178 Testing bias, p. 345 Weight control, p. 360

    See also Chapter 13, Social Psychology.


    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xxiMyersEx9e_FM.indd xxi 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM



    xxii PREFACE

    • “Thinking Critically About . . .” boxes are found throughout the book, modeling for students a critical approach to some key issues in psychology. For example, see the updated box “Thinking Critically About: The Fear Factor—Why We Fear the Wrong Things” (pages 310–311).

    • Detective-style stories throughout the narrative get students thinking critically about psychology’s key research questions. For example, in Chapter 14, I present the causes of schizophrenia piece by piece, showing students how researchers put the puzzle together.

    • “Apply this” and “Think about it” style discussions keep students active in their study of each chapter. In Chapter 13, for example, students take the perspective of participants in a Solomon Asch conformity experiment, and later in one of Stanley Milgram’s obedience experiments. I’ve also asked students to join the fun by taking part in activities they can try along the way. For example, in Chapter 6, they try out a quick sensory adaptation activity. In Chapter 10, they try matching expres- sions to faces and test the effects of different facial expressions on themselves.

    • Critical examinations of pop psychology spark interest and provide important les- sons in thinking critically about everyday topics. For example, Chapter 6 includes a close examination of ESP, and Chapter 8 addresses the controversial topic of repression of painful memories.

    See TABLE 6 for a complete list of this text’s coverage of critical thinking topics and Thinking Critically About boxes.

    TABLE 6 Critical Thinking and Research Emphasis

    Critical thinking coverage, and in-depth stories of psychology’s scientific research process, can be found on the following pages:

    Thinking Critically About . . . boxes: Addiction, p. 101 The Evolutionary Perspective on

    Human Sexuality, pp. 183–186 Can Subliminal Messages Control Our

    Behavior?, p. 195 ESP—Perception Without Sensation?,

    pp. 230–232 Does Viewing Media Violence Trigger

    Violent Behavior?, p. 265 The Fear Factor—Why We Fear the

    Wrong Things, pp. 310–311 Lie Detection, p. 379 How to Be a “Successful” Astrologer

    or Palm Reader, pp. 438–439 ADHD—Normal High Energy or

    Genuine Disorder?, p. 507 Insanity and Responsibility, p. 512

    Critical Examinations of Pop Psychology: The need for psychological science,

    p. 10 Perceiving order in random events,

    pp. 12–13 Do we use only 10 percent of our

    brains?, p. 56 Can hypnosis enhance recall? Coerce

    action? Be therapeutic? Alleviate pain?, pp. 97–98

    Has the concept of “addiction” been stretched too far?, p. 101

    Near-death experiences, p. 107 Critiquing the evolutionary perspec-

    tive, pp. 185–186 How much credit or blame do parents

    deserve?, p. 147 Sensory restriction, pp. 97–100 Is there extrasensory perception?,

    pp. 230–232 Do other species exhibit language?,

    pp. 323–325 How valid is the Rorschach test?,

    pp. 429–430 Is repression a myth?, p. 431 Is Freud credible?, pp. 430–432 Is psychotherapy effective?,

    pp. 560–563 Evaluating alternative therapies,

    pp. 563–565 Do video games teach or release vio-

    lence?, pp. 485–486

    Thinking Critically With Psychological Science:

    The limits of intuition and common sense, pp. 10–13

    The scientific attitude, pp. 13–14

    Critical thinking introduced as a key term, p. 15

    The scientific method, pp. 15–17 Correlation and causation, pp. 21–22 Exploring cause and effect,

    pp. 22–23 Random assignment, pp. 22–23 Independent and dependent variables,

    pp. 23–24 Statistical reasoning, pp. A1–A4 Describing data, pp. A1–A4 Making inferences, pp. A7–A8

    Scientific Detective Stories: Is breast milk better than formula?,

    pp. 22–23 Our divided brains, pp. 59–61 Twin and adoption studies,

    pp. 63–66 Why do we sleep?, pp. 88–89 Why do we dream?, pp. 94–96 Is hypnosis an extension of normal

    consciousness or an altered state?, pp. 98–100

    How a child’s mind develops, pp. 124–129

    What determines sexual orientation?, pp. 178–183

    Parallel processing, pp. 205–206 How do we see in color?, pp. 206–208 How are memories constructed?,

    pp. 274–280 How do we store memories in our

    brains?, pp. 280–282 Do other species exhibit language?,

    pp. 323–325 Aging and intelligence, pp. 337–338 Why do we feel hunger?, pp. 357–359 Why—and in whom—does stress

    contribute to heart disease?, pp. 397–399

    How and why is social support linked with health?, pp. 405–407

    The pursuit of happiness: Who is happy, and why?, pp. 412–419

    Self-esteem versus self-serving bias, pp. 448–450

    Why do people fail to help in emergen- cies?, pp. 494–495

    What causes mood disorders?, pp. 521–527

    Do prenatal viral infections increase risk of schizophrenia?, pp. 531–532

    Is psychotherapy effective?, pp. 560–561

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xxiiMyersEx9e_FM.indd xxii 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM



    PREFACE xxiii

    APA Principles and New MCAT 2015 Guidelines APA Principles for Quality Undergraduate Education and APA Learning Goals and Outcomes In February 2011, the American Psychological Association (APA) approved the new Principles for Quality Undergraduate Education in Psychology. These broad-based prin- ciples and their associated recommendations were designed to “produce psychologi- cally literate citizens who apply the principles of psychological science at work and at home.” (See

    APA’s more specif ic 2002 Learning Goals and Outcomes (from their Guidelines for the Undergraduate Psychology Major, updated in 2006) were designed to gauge progress in students graduating with psychology majors. (See precollege/about/psymajor-guidelines.pdf ) Many psychology departments have since used these goals and outcomes to help establish their own benchmarks for departmental assessment purposes. APA’s 2009 Assessment CyberGuide for Learn- ing Goals and Outcomes ( may assist your efforts.

    Some instructors are eager to know whether a given text for the introductory course helps students get a good start at achieving these APA benchmarks. See for detailed guides to how well Exploring Psychol- ogy, ninth edition, corresponds to both the 2011 APA Principles and the 2006 APA Learning Goals and Outcomes.

    MCAT Will Include Psychology Starting in 2015 Beginning in 2015, the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) is devoting 25 percent of its questions to the “Psychological, Social, and Biological Foundations of Behavior,” with most of those questions coming from the psychological science taught in introductory psychology courses. From 1977 to 2014, the MCAT focused on biology, chemistry, and physics. Hereafter, reports the new Preview Guide for MCAT 2015, the exam will also recognize “the importance of socio-cultural and behavioral determinants of health and health outcomes.” The exam’s new psychol- ogy section covers the breadth of topics in this text. See, for example, TABLE 7, which outlines the precise correlation between the topics in this text’s Sensation and Perception chapter and the corresponding portion of the MCAT exam. For a complete pairing of the new MCAT psychology topics with this book’s contents, see

    TABLE 7 Sample MCAT Correlation With Exploring Psychology, Ninth Edition

    MCAT 2015: Categories in Sensation and Perception Myers, Exploring Psychology, Ninth Edition, Correlations

    Content Category 6e: Sensing the environment Section Title or Topic Page Number

    Sensory Processing Sensation and Perception 191–235

    Sensation Sensation and Perception 193–195

    Thresholds Thresholds 193–195

    Signal detection theory Signal detection theory 193

    Sensory adaptation Sensory adaptation 196–197

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xxiiiMyersEx9e_FM.indd xxiii 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM



    xxiv PREFACE

    Sample MCAT Correlation With Exploring Psychology, Ninth Edition, continued

    MCAT 2015: Categories in Sensation and Perception Myers, Exploring Psychology, Ninth Edition, Correlations

    Content Category 6e: Sensing the environment Section Title or Topic Page Number

    Sensory receptors transduce stimulus energy and transmit signals to the central nervous system.

    Transduction 192

    Sensory pathways Visual Information Processing 202–206

    The Ear 216–217

    Understanding Pain 221

    Taste 224–225

    Smell 225–226

    Body Position and Movement 227

    Types of sensory receptors The Eye 201–204

    The Ear 216–219

    Understanding Pain 221–222

    Taste 224–225

    Smell 225–226

    Body Position and Movement 227

    The cerebral cortex controls voluntary movement and cognitive functions.

    Functions of the Cortex 54–57

    Information processing in the cerebral cortex The Cerebral Cortex 53–57

    Lateralization of cortical functions The Cerebral Cortex 53–56

    Our Divided Brain 59–61

    Right-Left Differences in the Intact Brain 61–62

    Vision Vision 200–215

    Structure and function of the eye The Eye 200–202

    Visual processing Visual Information Processing 202–206

    Visual pathways in the brain Figure 6.16 Pathway from the eyes to the visual cortex


    Parallel processing Parallel processing 205–206

    Feature detection Feature detection 204–205

    Hearing Hearing 216–219

    Auditory processing Transduction of sound 216–217

    Auditory pathways in the brain Transduction of sound 216–217

    Perceiving loudness and pitch Perceiving Loudness 218

    Perceiving Pitch 219

    Locating sounds Locating Sounds 219

    Sensory reception by hair cells Photo of hair cells; detailed drawing of inner ear, including hair cells

    216, 217

    The Ear 216

    Other Senses The Other Senses 220–227


    Sensory systems in the skin Sensory cortex 54–55

    Touch 220

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xxivMyersEx9e_FM.indd xxiv 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM



    PREFACE xxv

    Next-Generation Multimedia Exploring Psychology, ninth edition, boasts impressive multimedia options. For more information about any of these choices, visit Worth Publishers’ online catalog at

    PsychPortal With LearningCurve Quizzing The ninth edition’s dramatically enhanced PsychPortal adds new features (Learn- ingCurve formative assessment activities and Launch Pad carefully crafted prebuilt assignments) while incorporating the full range of Worth’s psychology media options (Video Tool Kit, PsychInvestigator, PsychSim).

    Based on the latest f indings from learning and memory research, LearningCurve combines adaptive question selection, personalized study plans, immediate and valuable feedback, and state-of-the-art question analysis reports. LearningCurve’s game-like nature keeps students engaged while helping them learn and remember key concepts.

    Sample MCAT Correlation With Exploring Psychology, Ninth Edition, continued

    MCAT 2015: Categories in Sensation and Perception Myers, Exploring Psychology, Ninth Edition, Correlations

    Content Category 6e: Sensing the environment Section Title or Topic Page Number

    Tactile pathways in the brain Sensory cortex 54–55

    Figure 6.38 The pain circuit 221

    Types of pain Pain 221–222

    Factors that infl uence pain Biological Infl uences 221–222

    Psychological Infl uences 222

    Social-Cultural Infl uences 222–223

    Taste Taste 224–225

    Taste buds/chemoreceptors that detect specifi c chemicals in the environment

    Taste receptors and their functions 224–225

    Gustatory pathways in the brain Processing taste in the brain 226

    Smell Smell 225–227

    Olfactory cells/chemoreceptors that detect specifi c chemicals in the environment

    Olfactory receptor cells, and processing olfaction in the brain


    Pheromones Smell of sex-related hormones 181, 182

    Olfactory pathways in the brain Processing olfaction in the brain 225–226

    Role of smell in perception of taste Sensory Interaction 227–229

    Perception Sensation and Perception 191–235

    Bottom-up/Top-down processing Bottom-up and top-down processing 192, 221

    Perceptual organization (i.e., depth, form, motion, constancy) Visual Organization: Form Perception, Depth Perception (including Relative Motion), Perceptual Constancy


    Processing motion 205

    Gestalt principles Gestalt principles 208–209

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xxvMyersEx9e_FM.indd xxv 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM



    xxvi PREFACE

    Launch Pad offers a set of prebuilt assignments, carefully crafted by a group of instructional designers and instructors with an abundance of teaching experience as well as deep familiarity with Worth content. Each Launch Pad unit contains videos, activities, and formative assessment pieces to build student understanding for each topic, culminating with a randomized summative quiz to hold students accountable for the unit. Assign units in just a few clicks, and find scores in your gradebook upon submission. Launch Pad appeals not only to instructors who have been interested in adding an online component to their course but haven’t been able to invest the time, but also to experienced online instructors curious to see how other colleagues might scaffold a series of online activities. Customize units as you wish, adding and drop- ping content to fit your course. (See FIGURE 2.)

    Faculty Support and Student Resources • New! Faculty Lounge——(see

    FIGURE 3) is an online place to find and share favorite teaching ideas and materials, including videos, animations, images, PowerPoint® slides and lectures, news stories, articles, web links, and lecture activities. Includes publisher- as well as peer-provided resources—all faculty-reviewed for accuracy and quality.

    • Instructor’s Media Guide for Introductory Psychology • Enhanced Course Management Solutions (including course cartridges) • eBook in various available formats, with embedded Concepts in Action • Book Companion Site

    FIGURE 2 Launch Pad in PsychPortal

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xxviMyersEx9e_FM.indd xxvi 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM



    PREFACE xxvii

    Video and Presentation • New! Worth Introductory Psychology Videos, produced in conjunction with

    Scientific American and Nature, is a breakthrough collection of NEW modular, tutorial videos on core psychology topics. This set includes animations, interviews with top scientists, and carefully selected archival footage and is available on flash drive, or as part of the new Worth Video Anthology for Introductory Psychology.

    • New! The Worth Video Anthology for Introductory Psychology is a com- plete collection, all in one place, of our video clips from the Video Tool Kit, the Digital Media Archive, and the third edition of the Scientific American Frontiers Teaching Modules, as well as from the new Worth Introductory Psychology Videos co-produced with Scientific American and Nature. Available on DVD or flash drive, the set is accompanied by its own Faculty Guide.

    • New! Interactive Presentation Slides for Introductory Psychology is an extraordinary series of PowerPoint® lectures . This is a dynamic, yet easy-to-use new way to engage students during classroom presentations of core psychology topics. This collection provides opportunities for discussion and interaction, and includes an unprecedented number of embedded video clips and animations (including activities from our ActivePsych series).

    Assessment • New! LearningCurve • Printed Test Banks • Diploma Computerized Test Banks • Online Quizzing • i•clicker Radio Frequency Classroom Response System

    FIGURE 3 Sample from our Faculty Lounge site (

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xxviiMyersEx9e_FM.indd xxvii 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM



    xxviii PREFACE

    Print • Instructor’s Resources • Lecture Guides • Study Guide • Pursuing Human Strengths: A Positive Psychology Guide • Critical Thinking Companion, Second Edition • Psychology and the Real World: Essays Illustrating Fundamental Contributions to Society.

    This ©2011 project of the FABBS Foundation brought together a virtual “Who’s Who” of contemporary psychological scientists to describe—in clear, captivating ways—the research they have passionately pursued and what it means to the “real world.” Each contribution is an original essay written for this project.

    From Scientifi c American • Improving the Mind & Brain: A Scientific American Special Issue • Scientific American Reader to Accompany Myers

    In Appreciation If it is true that “whoever walks with the wise becomes wise” then I am wiser for all the wisdom and advice received from my colleagues. Aided by thousands of consul- tants and reviewers over the last two decades, this has become a better, more accurate book than one author alone (this author, at least) could write. As my editors and I keep reminding ourselves, all of us together are smarter than any one of us.

    My indebtedness continues to each of the teacher-scholars whose inf luence I acknowledged in the eight previous editions, to the innumerable researchers who have been so willing to share their time and talent to help me accurately report their research, and to the 1155 instructors and students who took the time to offer feed- back over the phone, in a survey, or at one of our face-to-face focus groups. I also appreciated having detailed consultation on the Memory chapter from Janie Wilson (Georgia Southern University, and Vice President for Programming of the Society of the Teaching of Psychology).

    Nathan DeWall (University of Kentucky) offered valuable input as a special contributor for this edition. He assisted with the revision of the Need to Belong section in Chapter 10, Motivation and Emotion; the Personal Control discussion in Chapter 11, Stress, Health, and Human Flourishing; and the Aggression discussion in Chapter 13, Social Psychology.

    Amy Himsel (El Camino College), a gifted teacher with a keen ability to connect with students, guided creation of the self-test study aids found throughout this new edition.

    My gratitude extends to the colleagues who contributed criticism, corrections, and creative ideas related to the content, pedagogy, and format of this new edition and its teaching package. For their expertise and encouragement, and the gifts of their time to the teaching of psychology, I thank the reviewers and consultants listed here.

    Jennifer Adler, Borough of Manhattan Community College, CUNY

    David Alfano, Community College of Rhode Island

    Leslie Cramblet Alvarez, Adams State College

    Willow Aureala, Hawaii Community College

    Rosiana Azman, Kapiolani Community College

    Debra Bacon, Bristol Community College— Fall River Campus

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xxviiiMyersEx9e_FM.indd xxviii 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM



    PREFACE xxix

    Robert Baker, Sandhills Community College

    Meeta Banerjee, Michigan State University

    Carol Batt, Seattle Central Community College

    Kiersten Baughman, University of Oklahoma

    Alexander Beaujean, Baylor University

    Karen Bekker, Bergen Community College

    Anjan Bhattacharyya, New Jersey City University

    Beth Bigler, Pellissippi State Tech Community College

    Melissa Birkett, Northern Arizona University

    Tim Boffeli, Clarke University

    Gregory Bolich, Belmont Abbey College

    Pamela Bradley, Sandhills Community College

    Jennifer Breneiser, Valdosta State University

    Gayle Brosnan-Watters, Chandler Gilbert Community College

    Cheryl Carmichael, Brooklyn College, CUNY

    Ana Carmona, Austin Peay State University

    Natalie Ceballos, Texas State University—San Marcos

    Kelly Charlton, University of North Carolina at Pembroke

    Barbara Chutroo, Borough of Manhattan Community College, CUNY

    Pamela Costa, Tacoma Community College

    Baine Craft, Seattle Pacifi c University

    Christy Cummings, Community College of Denver

    Drew Curtis, Texas Woman’s University

    Robert Dale, Butler University

    Deborah Dalke, Defi ance College

    Robert Daniel, Bridgewater State College

    Mary Fran Davis, Austin Peay State University

    Sarah D’Elia, George Mason University

    Meliksah Demir, Northern Arizona University

    Jean Desto, Anna Maria College

    Wendy Domjan, University of Texas—Austin

    Evelyn Doody, College of Southern Nevada

    Kathryn Dumper, Bainbridge College

    Robert Egbert, Walla Walla University

    Julie Ehrhardt, Bristol Community College—New Bedford

    Daniella Errett, Penn Highlands Community College

    Kim Felsenthal, Berkeley College

    Christopher Ferguson, Texas A&M International University

    Bill Flack, Bucknell University

    Jonathan Forbey, Ball State University

    Claire Ford, Bridgewater State University

    William Fry, Youngstown State University

    Crystal Gabert-Quillen, Kent State University

    Dennis Galvan, Gallaudet University

    Karen Gee-Atwood, Foothill College

    Inna Ghajoyan, California State University—Northridge

    Jennifer Gibson, Tarleton State University

    Amanda Gingerich, Butler University

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xxixMyersEx9e_FM.indd xxix 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM



    xxx PREFACE

    Wind Goodfriend, Buena Vista University

    Dan Grangaard, Austin Community College

    Melinda Green, Cornell College

    Kelly Hagan, Bluegrass Community & Technical College

    Diane Hall, Bay Path College

    Pamela Hall, Barry University

    Stephen Hampe, Utica College

    Rhiannon Hart, Rochester Institute of Technology

    Wendy Hart, Arizona State University

    Myra Harville, Holmes Community College

    Matthew Hayes, Winthrop University

    Carmon Hicks, Ivy Tech Community College

    Kathleen Hipp, Daniel Webster College

    Brian Hock, Austin Peay State University

    Lori Hokerson, American River College

    Mia Holland, Bridgewater State College

    Gary Homann, Lincoln University of Missouri

    Mildred Huffman, Jefferson College of Health Sciences

    Steven Isonio, Golden West College

    Lora Jacobi, Stephen F. Austin State University

    Jenny Jellison, Waynesburg College

    Barry Johnson, Davidson County Community College

    Peter Karl Jonason, University of West Florida

    Diana Joy, Community College of Denver

    Stephen Joy, Albertus Magnus College

    Tracy Juliao, University of Michigan—Dearborn Campus

    Deana Julka, University of Portland

    Bethany Jurs, University of Wisconsin—Stout Campus

    Diane Kappen, Johnson County Community College

    Katrina Kardiasmenos, Bowie State University

    Chithra KarunaKaran, Borough of Manhattan Community College, CUNY

    Brent King, Adams State College

    Teresa King, Bridgewater State College

    Annette Kluck, Auburn University

    Franz Klutschkowski, North Central Texas College

    Dana Kuehn, Florida State College at Jacksonville

    Carol LaLiberte, Asnuntuck Community College

    Donna Landon-Jimenez, Caldwell College, Mount Saint Mary Academy

    Cynthia Lausberg, Pittsburg University

    Melissa Lea, Millsaps University

    Fred Leavitt, California State University—Hayward

    Heather Lench, Texas A&M University

    Nicolette Lopez, University of Texas at Arlington

    Ken Luke, Tyler Junior College

    Melanie Maggard, Mount San Jacinto College

    Toby Marx, Union County College

    Jim Matiya, Florida Gulf Coast University

    Simone Matlock-Phillips, Bay Path College

    Elizabeth Matys-Rahbar, Greenwich High School

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xxxMyersEx9e_FM.indd xxx 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM



    PREFACE xxxi

    Tammy McClain, West Liberty University

    Daniel McConnell, University of Central Florida

    Kyla McKay-Dewald, Bristol Community College— Fall River Campus

    Thomas Meriweather, Virginia Military Institute

    Nadia Monosov, California State University—Northridge

    James Moore, Marshall University

    Robin Musselman, Lehigh Carbon Community College

    Michelle Mychajlowskyj, Quinnipiac University

    Robert Newby, Tarleton State University

    Arthur Olguin, Santa Barbara City College

    Don Osborn, Bellarmine College

    Neophytos Papaneophytou, Borough of Manhattan Community College, CUNY

    Thomas Peterson, Grand View University

    Zehra Peynircioglu, American University

    Kellie Pierson, Northern Kentucky University

    Gary Popoli, Stevenson University

    Jack Powell, University of Hartford

    Patrick Progar, Caldwell College

    Michael Rader, Johnson County Community College

    Kimberly Renk, University of Central Florida

    Shannon Scott Rich, Texas Woman’s University

    Cynthia Rickert, Ivy Tech Community College

    Hugh H. Riley, Baylor University

    Kristin Ritchey, Ball State University

    Clarence Rohrbaugh, Fairmont State College James Rollins, Austin Peay State University Jane Russell, Austin Peay State University Valerie Scott, Indiana University Southeast Neda Senehi, California State University—Northridge Tim Shearon, The College of Idaho LaTishia Smith, Ivy Tech Community College Rita Smith-Wade-El, Millersville University Kristin Sorensen, Defi ance College Gary Springer, Los Angeles College International Jonathan D. Springer, Kean University Kimberly Stark-Wroblewski, University of Central Missouri Meri Stiles, Lyndon State College Deborah Stipp, Ivy Tech Community College Dawn Strongin, California State University—Stanislaus Donna Stuber-McEwen, Friends University Robert Tanner, Albuquerque Technical Vocational Institute Yonca Toker, Georgia Institute of Technology Stephen Truhon, Austin Peay State University Lynda Vannice, Umpqua Community College Nancy Voorhees, Ivy Tech Community College Benjamin Wallace, Cleveland State University Thomas Westcott, University of West Florida Keilah Worth, St. Catherine University Frederic Wynn, County College of Morris

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xxxiMyersEx9e_FM.indd xxxi 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM



    xxxii PREFACE

    At Worth Publishers a host of people played key roles in creating this ninth edition. Although the information gathering is never ending, the formal planning began

    as the author-publisher team gathered for a two-day retreat in June 2010. This happy and creative gathering included John Brink, Thomas Ludwig, Richard Straub, and me from the author team, along with my assistants Kathryn Brownson and Sara Neevel. We were joined by Worth Publishers executives Tom Scotty, Elizabeth Widdicombe, Catherine Woods, Craig Bleyer, and Mark Resmer; editors Chris- tine Brune, Kevin Feyen, Nancy Fleming, Tracey Kuehn, Betty Probert, and Trish Morgan; artistic director Babs Reingold; sales and marketing colleagues Tom Kling, Carlise Stembridge, John Britch, Lindsay Johnson, Cindi Weiss, Kari Ewalt, Mike Howard, and Matt Ours; and special guests Amy Himsel (El Camino Community College), Jennifer Peluso (Florida Atlantic University), Charlotte vanOyen Witvliet (Hope College), and Jennifer Zwolinski (University of San Diego). The input and brainstorming during this meeting of minds gave birth, among other things, to the study aids in this edition, the carefully revised clinical coverage, the separate gender and sexuality chapter, and the refreshing new design.

    Christine Brune, chief editor for the last eight editions, is a wonder worker. She offers just the right mix of encouragement, gentle admonition, attention to detail, and passion for excellence. An author could not ask for more.

    Development editor Nancy Fleming is one of those rare editors who is gifted both at “thinking big” about a chapter—and with a kindred spirit to my own—while also applying her sensitive, graceful, line-by-line touches.

    Publisher Kevin Feyen is a valued team leader, thanks to his dedication, creativity, and sensitivity. Catherine Woods (Senior Vice President, Editorial and Production) helped construct and execute the plan for this text and its supplements. Catherine was also a trusted sounding board as we faced a seemingly unending series of discrete decisions along the way. Elizabeth Block and Nadina Persaud coordinated produc- tion of the huge media and print supplements package for this edition. Betty Probert efficiently edited and produced the print supplements and, in the process, also helped fine-tune the whole book. Nadina also provided invaluable support in commission- ing and organizing the multitude of reviews, mailing information to professors, and handling numerous other daily tasks related to the book’s development and produc- tion. Lee Ann McKevitt did a splendid job of laying out each page. Bianca Moscatelli and Donna Ranieri worked together to locate the myriad photos.

    Tracey Kuehn, Director of Print and Digital Development, displayed tire- less tenacity, commitment, and impressive organization in leading Worth’s gifted artistic production team and coordinating editorial input throughout the produc- tion process. Production Manager Sarah Segal masterfully kept the book to its tight schedule, and Art Director Babs Reingold skillfully directed creation of the beauti- ful new design and art program. Production Manager Stacey Alexander, along with Supplements Production Editor Edgar Bonilla, did their usual excellent work of producing the many supplements.

    To achieve our goal of supporting the teaching of psychology, this teaching pack- age not only must be authored, reviewed, edited, and produced, but also made avail- able to teachers of psychology. For their exceptional success in doing that, our author team is grateful to Worth Publishers’ professional sales and marketing team. We are especially grateful to Executive Marketing Manager Kate Nurre, Marketing Manager Lindsay Johnson, and National Psychology and Economics Consultant Tom Kling both for their tireless efforts to inform our teaching colleagues of our efforts to assist their teaching, and for the joy of working with them.

    At Hope College, the supporting team members for this edition included Kathryn Brownson, who researched countless bits of information and proofed hundreds of pages. Kathryn has become a knowledgeable and sensitive adviser on many matters, and Sara Neevel has become our high-tech manuscript developer, par excellence.

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xxxiiMyersEx9e_FM.indd xxxii 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM



    PREFACE xxxiii

    Again, I gratefully acknowledge the inf luence and editing assistance of my writing coach, poet Jack Ridl, whose inf luence resides in the voice you will be hearing in the pages that follow. He, more than anyone, cultivated my delight in dancing with the language, and taught me to approach writing as a craft that shades into art.

    After hearing countless dozens of people say that this book’s supplements have taken their teaching to a new level, I ref lect on how fortunate I am to be a part of a team in which everyone has produced on-time work marked by the highest profes- sional standards. For their remarkable talents, their long-term dedication, and their friendship, I thank John Brink, Thomas Ludwig, and Richard Straub, and I welcome Jennifer Peluso (Florida Atlantic University) to our teaching package team. I am grateful for Jenny’s excellent work—building on the many years of creative effort contributed by the late Martin Bolt.

    Finally, my gratitude extends to the many students and instructors who have writ- ten to offer suggestions, or just an encouraging word. It is for them, and those about to begin their study of psychology, that I have done my best to introduce the field I love.

    The day this book went to press was the day I started gathering information and ideas for the tenth edition. Your input will again inf luence how this book continues to evolve. So, please, do share your thoughts.

    Hope College Holland, Michigan 49422-9000 USA

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xxxiiiMyersEx9e_FM.indd xxxiii 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM






    We all face challenges in our schedules. Some of you may be taking midnight courses, others squeezing in an online course in between jobs or after putting chil- dren to bed at night. Some of you may be veterans using military benefits to jump- start a new life.

    How can you balance all of your life’s demands and be successful? Time manage- ment. Manage the time you have so that you can find the time you need.

    In this section, I will outline a simple, four-step process for improving the way you make use of your time.

    1. Keep a time-use diary to understand how you are using your time. You may be surprised at how much time you’re wasting.

    2. Design a new schedule for using your time more effectively.

    3. Make the most of your study time so that your new schedule will work for you.

    4. If necessary, refi ne your new schedule, based on what you’ve learned.

    How Are You Using Your Time Now? Although everyone gets 24 hours in the day and seven days in the week, we fill those hours and days with different obligations and interests. If you are like most people, you probably use your time wisely in some ways, and not so wisely in others. Answering the questions in TABLE 1 can help you find trouble spots—and hopefully more time for the things that matter most to you.

    The next thing you need to know is how you actually spend your time. To find out, record your activities in a time-use diary for one week. Be realistic. Take notes on

    —Richard O. Straub University of Michigan, Dearborn

    © N

    ic k

    Pa rk

    asHow Are You Using Your Time Now?

    Design a Better Schedule Plan the Term

    Plan Your Week

    CLOSE-UP: More Tips for Effective Scheduling

    Make Every Minute of Your Study Time Count Take Useful Class Notes

    Create a Study Space That Helps You Learn

    Set Specifi c, Realistic Daily Goals

    Use SQ3R to Help You Master This Text

    Don’t Forget About Rewards!

    Do You Need to Revise Your New Schedule? Are You Doing Well in Some Courses But Not in Others?

    Have You Received a Poor Grade on a Test?

    Are You Trying to Study Regularly for the First Time and Feeling Overwhelmed?

    Motivated students: This course at Bunker Hill Community College meets at the increasingly popular time of midnight to 2:00 A.M., allowing shift workers, busy parents, and others to make it to class.

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xxxivMyersEx9e_FM.indd xxxiv 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM



    how much time you spend attending class, studying, working, commut- ing, meeting personal and family needs, f ixing and eating meals, social- izing (don’t forget texting, Facebooking, and gaming), exercising, and anything else that occupies your time, including life’s small practical tasks, which can take up plenty of your 24/7. As you record your activi- ties, take notes on how you are feeling at various times of the day. When does your energy slump, and when do you feel most energetic?

    Design a Better Schedule Take a good look at your time-use diary. Where do you think you may be wasting time? Do you spend a lot of time commuting, for example? If so, could you use that time more productively? If you take public transportation, commuting is a great time to read and test yourself for review.

    Did you remember to include time for meals, personal care, work sched- ules, family commitments, and other fixed activities?

    How much time do you sleep? In the battle to meet all of life’s daily commitments and interests, we tend to treat sleep as optional. Do your best to manage your life so that you can get enough sleep to feel rested. You will feel better and be healthier, and you will also do better academically and in relationships with your family and friends. (You will read more about this in Chapter 3.)

    Are you dedicating enough time for focused study? Take a last look at your notes to see if any other patterns pop out. Now it’s time to create a new and more efficient schedule.

    Plan the Term Before you draw up your new schedule, think ahead. Buy a portable calendar that covers the entire school term, with a writing space for each day. Using the course outlines provided by your instructors, enter the dates of all exams, term-paper deadlines, and other important assign- ments. Also be sure to enter your own long-range personal plans (work and family commitments, etc.). Carry this calendar with you each day. Keep it up-to-date, refer to it often, and change it as needed. Through this process, you will develop a regular schedule that will help you achieve success.

    Plan Your Week To pass those exams, meet those deadlines, and keep up with your life outside of class, you will need to convert your long-term goals into a daily schedule. Be realistic—you will be living with this routine for the entire school term. Here are some more things to add to that portable calendar.

    1. Enter your class times, work hours, and any other fi xed obligations. Be thorough. Allow plenty of time for such things as commuting, meals, and laundry.

    2. Set up a study schedule for each course. Remember what you learned about yourself in the study habits survey (Table 1) and your time-use diary. Close-Up: More Tips for Effective Scheduling (next page) offers some detailed guidance drawn from psy- chology’s research.

    3. After you have budgeted time for studying, fi ll in slots for other obligations, exer- cise, fun, and relaxation.


    Table 1 Study Habits Survey

    Answer the following questions, writing Yes or No for each line.

    1. Do you usually set up a schedule to budget your time for studying, work, recreation, and other activities?

    2. Do you often put off studying until time pres- sures force you to cram?

    3. Do other students seem to study less than you do, but get better grades?

    4. Do you usually spend hours at a time study- ing one subject, rather than dividing that time among several subjects?

    5. Do you often have trouble remember- ing what you have just read in a textbook?

    6. Before reading a chapter in a textbook, do you skim through it and read the section headings?

    7. Do you try to predict test questions from your class notes and reading?

    8. Do you usually try to summarize in your own words what you have just finished reading?

    9. Do you find it difficult to concentrate for very long when you study?

    10. Do you often feel that you studied the wrong material for a test?

    Thousands of students have participated in similar surveys. Students who are fully realizing their aca- demic potential usually respond as follows: (1) yes, (2) no, (3) no, (4) no, (5) no, (6) yes, (7) yes, (8) yes, (9) no, (10) no.

    Do your responses fit that pattern? If not, you could benefit from improving your time management and study habits.

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xxxvMyersEx9e_FM.indd xxxv 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM




    Make Every Minute of Your Study Time Count How do you study from a textbook? Many students simply read and reread in a passive manner. As a result, they remember the wrong things—the catchy stories but not the main points that show up later in test questions. To make things worse, many students take poor notes during class. Here are some tips that will help you get the most from your class and your text.

    Take Useful Class Notes Good notes will boost your understanding and retention. Are yours thorough? Do they form a sensible outline of each lecture? If not, you may need to make some changes.

    Keep Each Course’s Notes Separate and Organized Keeping all your notes for a course in one location will allow you to f lip back and forth easily to find answers to questions. Three options are (1) separate note- books for each course, (2) clearly marked sections in a shared ring binder, or (3) carefully organized folders if you opt to take notes electronically. For the print options, removable pages will allow you to add new information and weed out past mistakes. Choosing notebook pages with lots of space, or using mark-up options in electronic f iles, will allow you to add comments when you review and revise your notes after class.

    Use an Outline Format Use roman numerals for major points, letters for supporting arguments, and so on. (See FIGURE 1 for a sample.) In some courses, taking notes will be easy, but some instructors may be less organized, and you will have to work harder to form your outline.

    More Tips for Effective Scheduling

    class. Increase your study time slowly by setting weekly goals that will gradually bring you up to the desired level.

    Create a schedule that makes sense. Tailor your schedule to meet the demands of each course. For the course that emphasizes lecture notes, plan a daily review of your notes soon after each class. If you are evalu- ated for class participation (for example, in a language course), allow time for a review just before the class meets. Schedule study time for your most difficult (or least motivating) courses during hours when you are the most alert and distractions are fewest.

    Schedule open study time. Life can be unpredictable. Emergencies and new obligations can throw off your schedule. Or you may simply need some extra time for a project or for review in one of your courses. Try to allow for some flexibility in your schedule each week.

    Following these guidelines will help you find a schedule that works for you!

    There are a few other things you will want to keep in mind when you set up your schedule.

    Spaced study is more effective than massed study. If you need 3 hours to study one subject, for example, it’s best to divide that into shorter periods spaced over several days.

    Alternate subjects, but avoid interference. Alternating the subjects you study in any given session will keep you fresh and will, surprisingly, increase your ability to remember what you’re learning in each different area. Studying similar topics back-to-back, however, such as two differ- ent foreign languages, could lead to interference in your learning. (You will hear more about this in Chapter 8.)

    Determine the amount of study time you need to do well in each course. The time you need depends upon the difficulty of your courses and the effectiveness of your study methods. Ideally, you would spend at least 1 to 2 hours studying for each hour spent in

    M Ti f


    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xxxviMyersEx9e_FM.indd xxxvi 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM




    Clean Up Your Notes After Class Try to reorganize your notes soon after class. Expand or clarify your comments and clean up any hard-to-read scribbles while the material is fresh in your mind. Write impor- tant questions in the margin, or by using an electronic markup feature, next to notes that answer them. (For example: “What are the sleep stages?”) This will help you when you review your notes before a test.

    Create a Study Space That Helps You Learn It’s easier to study effectively if your work area is well designed.

    Organize Your Space Work at a desk or table, not in your bed or a comfy chair that will tempt you to nap.

    Minimize Distractions Turn the TV off, turn off your phone, and close Facebook and other distracting windows on your computer. If you must listen to music to mask outside noise, play soft instrumentals, not vocal selections that will draw your mind to the lyrics.

    Ask Others to Honor Your Quiet Time Tell roommates, family, and friends about your new schedule. Try to find a study place where you are least likely to be disturbed.

    Set Specifi c, Realistic Daily Goals The simple note “7–8 P.M.: Study Psychology” is too broad to be useful. Instead, break your studying into manageable tasks. For example, you will want to subdivide large reading assignments. If you aren’t used to studying for long periods, start with relatively short periods of concentrated study, with breaks in between. In this text, for example, you might decide to read one major section before each break. Limit your breaks to 5 or 10 minutes to stretch or move around a bit.

    Your attention span is a good indicator of whether you are pacing yourself successfully. At this early stage, it’s important to remember that you’re in training. If your attention begins to wander, get up immediately and take a short break. It is better to study effec- tively for 15 minutes and then take a break than to fritter away 45 minutes out of your study hour. As your endurance develops, you can increase the length of study periods.

    Use SQ3R to Help You Master This Text David Myers organized this text by using a system called SQ3R (Survey, Question, Read, Retrieve, Review). Using SQ3R can help you to understand what you read, and to retain that information longer.

    Sleep (Chapter 3) I. Biological Rhythms

    A. Circadian Rhythm (circa-about; diem-day)—24-hour cycle.

    B. FOUR Sleep Stages, cycle through every 90 minutes all

    night! Aserinsky discovered—his son—REM sleep (dreams,

    rapid eye movement, muscles paralyzed but brain super

    active). EEG measurements showed sleep stages.

    1. Ups and downs throughout day/night.

    Dip in afternoon (siesta time).

    2. Melatonin—hormone that makes us sleepy. Produced by pineal

    gland in brain. Bright light shuts down production of melatonin.

    (Dim the lights at night to get sleepy.)

    When is my daily peak in circadian arousal? Study

    hardest subject then!

    1. NREM-1 (non-Rapid Eye Movement sleep; brief, images like

    hallucinations; hypnagogic jerks)

    2. NREM-2 (harder to waken, sleep spindles)

    3. NREM-3 (DEEP sleep—hard to wake up! Long slow waves on EEG;

    bedwetting, night terrors, sleepwalking occurs here; asleep but

    not dead—can still hear, smell, etc. Will wake up for baby.)

    4. REM Sleep (Dreams…)

    FIGURE 1

    Sample class notes in outline

    form Here is a sample from a student’s notes taken in outline form from a lecture on sleep.

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xxxviiMyersEx9e_FM.indd xxxvii 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM




    Applying SQ3R may feel at first as though it’s taking more time and effort to “read” a chapter, but with practice, these steps will become automatic.

    Survey Before you read a chapter, survey its key parts. Scan the chapter outline. Note that main sections have numbered Learning Objective Questions to help you focus. Pay attention to headings, which indicate important subtopics, and to words set in bold type.

    Surveying gives you the big picture of a chapter’s content and organization. Understanding the chapter’s logical sections will help you break your work into manageable pieces in your study sessions.

    Question As you survey, don’t limit yourself to the numbered Learning Objective Questions that appear throughout the chapter. Jotting down additional questions of your own will cause you to look at the material in a new way. (You might, for example, scan this section’s headings and ask “What does ‘SQ3R’ mean?”) Information becomes easier to remember when you make it personally meaningful. Trying to answer your questions while reading will keep you in an active learning mode.

    Read As you read, keep your questions in mind and actively search for the answers. If you come to material that seems to answer an important question that you haven’t jotted down, stop and write down that new question.

    Be sure to read everything. Don’t skip photo or art captions, graphs, boxes, tables, or quotes. An idea that seems vague when you read about it may become clear when you see it in a graph or table. Keep in mind that instructors sometimes base their test questions on figures and tables.

    Retrieve When you have found the answer to one of your questions, close your eyes and mentally recite the question and its answer. Then write the answer next to the question in your own words. Trying to explain something in your own words will help you f igure out where there are gaps in your understanding. These kinds of opportunities to practice retrieving develop the skills you will need when you are taking exams. If you study without ever putting your book and notes aside, you may develop false confidence about what you know. With the material available, you may be able to recognize the correct answer to your questions. But will you be able to recall it later, when you take an exam without having your mental props in sight?

    Test your understanding as often as you can. Testing yourself is part of successful learning, because the act of testing forces your brain to work at remembering, thus establishing the memory more permanently (so you can find it later for the exam!). Use the self-testing opportunities throughout each chapter, including the periodic Retrieve It items. Also take advantage of the self-testing that is available on the free book companion website (

    Review After working your way through the chapter, read over your questions and your written answers. Take an extra few minutes to create a brief written summary cover- ing all of your questions and answers. At the end of the chapter, you should take advantage of three important opportunities for self-testing and review—a list of the chapter’s Learning Objective Questions for you to try answering before checking

    You will hear more about SQ3R in Chapter 1.

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xxxviiiMyersEx9e_FM.indd xxxviii 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM




    Appendix D (Complete Chapter Reviews), a list of the chapter’s key terms for you to try to define before checking the referenced page, and a final self-test that covers all of the key chapter concepts (with answers in Appendix E).

    Don’t Forget About Rewards! If you have trouble studying regularly, giving yourself a reward may help. What kind of reward works best? That depends on what you enjoy. You might start by making a list of 5 or 10 things that put a smile on your face. Spending time with a loved one, taking a walk or going for a bike ride, relaxing with a magazine or novel, or watching a favorite show can provide immediate rewards for achieving short-term study goals.

    To motivate yourself when you’re having trouble sticking to your schedule, allow yourself an immediate reward for completing a specific task. If running makes you smile, change your shoes, grab a friend, and head out the door! You deserve a reward for a job well done.

    Do You Need to Revise Your New Schedule? What if you’ve lived with your schedule for a few weeks, but you aren’t making progress toward your academic and personal goals? What if your studying hasn’t paid off in better grades? Don’t despair and abandon your program, but do take a little time to figure out what’s gone wrong.

    Are You Doing Well in Some Courses But Not in Others? Perhaps you need to shift your priorities a bit. You may need to allow more study time for Chemistry, for example, and less time for some other course.

    Have You Received a Poor Grade on a Test? Did your grade fail to ref lect the effort you spent preparing for the test? This can happen to even the hardest-working student, often on a first test with a new instruc- tor. This common experience can be upsetting. “What do I have to do to get an A?” “The test was unfair!” “I studied the wrong material!”

    Try to figure out what went wrong. Analyze the questions you missed, dividing them into two categories: class-based questions and text-based questions. How many questions did you miss in each category? If you find far more errors in one category than in the other, you’ll have some clues to help you revise your schedule. Depending on the pattern you’ve found, you can add extra study time to review of class notes, or to studying the text.

    Are You Trying to Study Regularly for the First Time and Feeling Overwhelmed? Perhaps you’ve set your initial goals too high. Remember, the point of time manage- ment is to identify a regular schedule that will help you achieve success. Like any skill, time management takes practice. Accept your limitations and revise your schedule to work slowly up to where you know you need to be—perhaps adding 15 minutes of study time per day.

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xxxixMyersEx9e_FM.indd xxxix 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM




    * * * I hope that these suggestions help make you more successful academically, and that they enhance the quality of your life in general. Having the necessary skills makes any job a lot easier and more pleasant. Let me repeat my warning not to attempt to make too dras- tic a change in your lifestyle immediately. Good habits require time and self-discipline to develop. Once established, they can last a lifetime.


    Time Management: Or, How to Be a Great Student and Still Have a Life 1. How Are You Using Your Time Now?

    • Identify your areas of weakness. • Keep a time-use diary. • Record the time you actually spend on activities. • Record your energy levels to fi nd your most productive times.

    2. Design a Better Schedule

    • Decide on your goals for the term and for each week. • Enter class times, work times, social times (for family and friends), and time needed for other obligations and for practical activities. • Tailor study times to avoid interference and to meet each course’s needs.

    3. Make Every Minute of Your Study Time Count

    • Take careful class notes (in outline form) that will help you recall and rehearse material covered in lectures. • Try to eliminate distractions to your study time, and ask friends and family to help you focus on your work. • Set specifi c, realistic daily goals to help you focus on each day’s tasks. • Use the SQ3R system (survey, question, read, retrieve, review) to master material covered in your text. • When you achieve your daily goals, reward yourself with something that you value.

    4. Do You Need to Revise Your New Schedule?

    • Allocate extra study time for courses that are more diffi cult, and a little less time for courses that are easy for you. • Study your test results to help determine a more effective balance in your schedule. • Make sure your schedule is not too ambitious. Gradually establish a schedule that will be effective for the long term.

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xlMyersEx9e_FM.indd xl 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM



    Exploring PSYCHOLOGY

    MyersEx9e_FM.indd xliMyersEx9e_FM.indd xli 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM



    WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? Psychology’s Roots

    CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY Psychology’s Biggest Question

    Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis

    Psychology’s Subfields

    THE NEED FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE What About Intuition and Common Sense?

    The Scientific Attitude: Curious, Skeptical, and Humble

    Critical Thinking







    MyersEx9e_Ch01.indd 2MyersEx9e_Ch01.indd 2 10/25/12 10:52 AM10/25/12 10:52 AM



    Hoping to satisfy their curiosity about people and to remedy their own woes, millions turn to “psychology.” They listen to talk-radio counseling. They read articles on psychic powers. They attend stop-smoking hypnosis semi- nars. They immerse themselves in self-help websites and books on the meaning of dreams, the path to ecstatic love, and the roots of personal happiness.

    Others, intrigued by claims of psychological truth, wonder: Do mothers and infants bond in the first hours after birth? How—and how much—does parenting shape children’s per- sonalities and abilities? What factors affect our drive to achieve? Does psychotherapy heal?

    In working with such questions, how can we separate uninformed opinions from examined conclusions? How can we best use psychology to understand why people think, feel, and act as they do?

    Thinking Critically With Psychological Science



    MyersEx9e_Ch01.indd 1MyersEx9e_Ch01.indd 1 10/25/12 10:52 AM10/25/12 10:52 AM




    What Is Psychology? For people whose exposure to psychology comes from popular books, magazines, TV, and the Internet, psychologists seem to analyze personality, offer counseling, and dis- pense child – rearing advice. Do they? Yes, and much more. Consider some of psychol- ogy’s questions, which perhaps have also been yours:

    • Have you ever found yourself reacting to something as one of your biological par- ents would—perhaps in a way you vowed you never would—and then wondered how much of your person ality you inherited? To what extent do genes predispose our person – to – person personality differences? To what extent do home and community environ- ments shape us?

    • Have you ever worried about how to act among people of a different culture, race, gender, or sexual orientation? In what ways are we alike as members of the human fam- ily? How do we differ?

    • Have you ever awakened from a nightmare and, with a wave of relief, wondered why you had such a crazy dream? How often, and why, do we dream?

    • Have you ever played peekaboo with a 6-month – old and wondered why the baby finds the game so delightful? The infant reacts as though, when you momentarily move behind a door, you actually disappear—only to reappear out of thin air. What do babies actually perceive and think?

    • Have you ever wondered what fosters school and work success? Are some people just born smarter? And does sheer intelligence explain why some people get richer, think more cre- atively, or relate more sensitively?

    • Have you ever wondered how the Internet, video games, and electronic social net- works affect people? How do today’s electronic media influence how we think and how we relate?

    • Have you ever become depressed or anxious and wondered whether you’ll ever feel “normal”? What triggers our bad moods—and our good ones? What’s the line between a normal mood swing and a psychological disorder for which someone should seek help?

    Psychology is a science that seeks to answer such questions.

    Psychology’s Roots

    1-1: What are some important milestones in psychology’s development?

    To be human is to be curious about ourselves and the world around us. Before 300 B.C.E., the Greek naturalist and philosopher Aristotle theorized about learning and memory, motivation and emotion, perception and personality. Today we chuckle at some of his guesses, like his suggestion that the source of our personality is the heart. But credit Aristotle with asking the right questions.

    Psychological Science Is Born Philosophers’ thinking about thinking continued until the birth of psychology on a December day in 1879, in a small, third-floor room at Germany’s University of Leipzig. There, two young men were helping an austere, middle – aged professor, Wilhelm Wundt, create an experimental apparatus. Their machine measured the time lag between people’s hearing a ball hit a platform and their pressing a telegraph key (Hunt, 1993). Curiously, people responded in about one – tenth of a second when asked to press the key as soon as the sound occurred—and in about two – tenths of a second when asked to press the key as soon as they were consciously aware of perceiving the sound. (To be aware of one’s awareness takes a little longer.) Wundt was seeking to measure “atoms of

    A smile is a smile the world around Throughout this book, you will see examples not only of our cultural and gender diversity but also of the similarities that define our shared human nature. People in different cultures vary in when and how often they smile, but a naturally happy smile means the same thing anywhere in the world.

    Ti m

    G ai

    ne y/

    Al am


    To assist your active learning of psychology, Learning Objectives, framed as questions, appear at the beginning of major sections. You can test your understanding by trying to answer the question before, and then again after, you read the section.

    Information sources are cited in parentheses, with name and date. Every citation can be found in the end- of-book References, with complete documentation that follows American Psychological Association style.

    MyersEx9e_Ch01.indd 2MyersEx9e_Ch01.indd 2 10/25/12 10:52 AM10/25/12 10:52 AM




    the mind”—the fastest and simplest mental processes. So began the first psychological laboratory, staffed by Wundt and by psychology’s first graduate students.

    Before long, this new science of psychology became organized into different branches, or schools of thought, each promoted by pioneering thinkers. Two early schools were structuralism and functionalism. As physicists and chemists discerned the structure of matter, so Wundt’s student Edward Bradford Titchener aimed to discover the mind’s structure. He engaged people in self-reflective introspection (looking inward), training them to report elements of their experience as they looked at a rose, listened to a metronome, smelled a scent, or tasted a substance. What were their immediate sensations, their images, their feelings? And how did these relate to one another? Alas, introspection proved some- what unreliable. It required smart, verbal people, and its results varied from person to per- son and experience to experience. As introspection waned, so did structuralism.

    Hoping to assemble the mind’s structure from simple elements was rather like try- ing to understand a car by examining its disconnected parts. Philosopher-psychologist William James thought it would be more fruitful to consider the evolved functions of our thoughts and feelings. Smelling is what the nose does; thinking is what the brain does. But why do the nose and brain do these things? Under the influence of evolu- tionary theorist Charles Darwin, James assumed that thinking, like smelling, developed because it was adaptive—it contributed to our ancestors’ survival. Consciousness serves a function. It enables us to consider our past, adjust to our present, and plan our future. As a functionalist, James encouraged explorations of down-to-earth emotions, memories, willpower, habits, and moment-to-moment streams of consciousness.

    As these names illustrate, the early pioneers of most fields, including psychology, were predominantly men. In 1890, over the objections of Harvard’s president, James admitted Mary Whiton Calkins into his graduate seminar (Scarborough & Furumoto, 1987). (In those years women lacked even the right to vote.) When Calkins joined, the other students (all men) dropped out. So James tutored her alone. Later, she finished all of Harvard’s Ph.D. requirements, outscoring all the male students on the qualifying exams. Alas, Harvard denied her the degree she had earned, offering her instead a degree from Radcliffe College, its undergraduate “sister” school for women. Calkins resisted the unequal treatment and refused the degree. She nevertheless went on to become a distinguished memory researcher and the American Psychological Association’s (APA’s) first female president in 1905.

    The honor of being the first female psychology Ph.D. later fell to Margaret Floy Washburn, who also wrote an influential book, The Animal Mind, and became the APA’s second female president in 1921.

    Wilhelm Wundt Wundt established the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany. © Bettmann/Corbis

    William James and Mary Whiton Calkins James was a legendary teacher – writer who authored an important 1890 psychology text. He mentored Calkins, who became a pioneering memory researcher and the first woman to be president of the American Psychological Association. (left) Mary Evans Picture Library/Alamy; (right) Wellesley College Archives

    Margaret Floy Washburn The first woman to receive a psychology Ph.D., Washburn synthesized animal behavior research in The Animal Mind. Center for the History of Psychology Archives of the History of American Psychology, The University of Akron

    structuralism early school of thought pro- moted by Wundt and Titchener; used introspec- tion to reveal the structure of the human mind.

    functionalism early school of thought promoted by James and influenced by Darwin; explored how mental and behavioral processes function—how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.

    Throughout the text, important concepts are boldfaced. As you study, you can find these terms with their definitions in a nearby margin and in the Glossary at the end of the book.

    MyersEx9e_Ch01.indd 3MyersEx9e_Ch01.indd 3 10/25/12 10:52 AM10/25/12 10:52 AM





    • What event defined the start of scientific psychology?

    ANSWER: Scientific psychology began in Germany in 1879 when Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psychology laboratory.

    • Why did introspection fail as a method for understanding how the mind works?

    • used introspection to define the mind’s makeup;

    focused on how mental processes enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish.

    Psychological Science Develops In the field’s early days, many psychologists shared with the English essayist C. S. Lewis the view that “there is one thing, and only one in the whole universe which we know more about than we could learn from external observation.” That one thing, Lewis said, is ourselves: “We have, so to speak, inside information” (1960, pp. 18–19). Wundt and Titchener focused on inner sensations, images, and feelings. James engaged in introspec- tive examination of the stream of consciousness and emotion. For these and other early pioneers, psychology was defined as “the science of mental life.”

    And so it continued until the 1920s, when the first of two provocative American psychologists appeared on the scene. John B. Watson, and later B. F. Skinner, dismissed introspection and redefined psychology as “the scientific study of observable behavior.” You cannot observe a sensation, a feeling, or a thought, they said, but you can observe and record people’s behavior as they respond to different situations. Many agreed, and the behaviorists became one of psychology’s two major forces well into the 1960s.

    The other major force was Freudian psychology, which emphasized the ways our uncon- scious thought processes and our emotional responses to childhood experiences affect our behavior. (In chapters to come, we’ll look more closely at Sigmund Freud’s ideas.)

    As the behaviorists had rejected the early 1900s definition of psychology, two other groups rejected the behaviorist definition in the 1960s. The first, the humanistic psychologists, led by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow, found both Freudian psychol- ogy and behaviorism too limiting. Rather than focusing on the meaning of early child- hood memories or on the learning of conditioned responses, the humanistic psychologists drew attention to ways that current environmental influences can nurture or limit our growth potential, and the importance of having our needs for love and acceptance satisfied. (More on this in Chapter 12.)

    The second group of psychologists pioneered the 1960s cogni- tive revolution, leading the field back to its early interest in

    mental processes. Cognitive psychology scientifically explores how we perceive, process, and remember information,

    and even why we can get anxious or depressed. Cog- nitive neuroscience, an interdisciplinary study, has enriched our understanding of the brain activity underlying mental activity.

    To encompass psychology’s concern with observable behavior and with inner thoughts and feelings, today we define psychology as the science of behavior and mental processes. Let’s unpack this definition. Behavior is anything

    an organism does—any action we can observe and record. Yelling, smiling, blinking, sweating, talking, and question-

    naire marking are all observable behaviors. Mental processes are the internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior—

    sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings.

    John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner Working with Rayner, Watson cham- pioned psychology as the science of behavior and demonstrated conditioned responses on a baby who became famous as “Little Albert.” (More about Watson’s controversial study in Chapter 7.) (left) ©Underwood & Underwood/Corbis (right) Center for the History of Psychology Archives of the History of American Psychology, The University of Akron

    Study Tip: Memory research reveals a testing effect: We retain information much better if we actively retrieve it by self-testing and rehearsing. To bolster your learning and memory, take advantage of the Retrieve It opportunities you’ll find throughout this text. ANSWER: People’s self-reports varied, depending on the experience and the person’s intelligence and verbal ability.

    ANSWER: Structuralism; functionalism

    MyersEx9e_Ch01.indd 4MyersEx9e_Ch01.indd 4 10/25/12 10:52 AM10/25/12 10:52 AM




    behaviorism the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).

    humanistic psychology historically sig- nificant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people.

    cognitive neuroscience the interdis- ciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).

    psychology the science of behavior and mental processes.

    nature– nurture issue the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today’s psychological science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.

    The key word in psychology’s definition is science. Psychology is less a set of find- ings than a way of asking and answering questions. My aim, then, is not merely to report results but also to show you how psychologists play their game. You will see how researchers evaluate conflicting opinions and ideas. And you will learn how all of us, whether scientists or simply curious people, can think smarter when describing and explaining the events of our lives.


    • How did the cognitive revolution affect the field of psychology?

    ANSWER: It recaptured the field’s early interest in mental processes and made them legitimate topics for scientific study.

    Contemporary Psychology This young science of psychology developed from the more established fields of phi- losophy and biology. Wundt was both a philosopher and a physiologist. Ivan Pavlov, who pioneered the study of learning (Chapter 7), was a Russian physiologist. Freud was an Austrian physician. Jean Piaget, the last century’s most influential observer of children, (Chapter 4), was a Swiss biologist. James was an American philosopher. This list of pio- neering psychologists—“Magellans of the mind,” as Morton Hunt (1993) has called them—illustrates psychology’s origins in many disciplines and countries.

    Like the pioneers, today’s psychologists are citizens of many lands. The International Union of Psychological Science has 71 member nations, from Albania to Zimbabwe. Psychology is growing and it is globalizing. The story of psychology is being written in many places, with interests ranging from nerve cell activity to international conflicts.

    Psychology’s Biggest Question

    1-2: What is psychology’s historic big issue?

    Are our human traits present at birth, or do they develop through experience? The debate over this huge nature–nurture issue is ancient. The Greek phi-

    losopher Plato (428–348 B.C.E.) assumed that we inherit character and intelligence and that certain ideas are inborn. Aristotle (384–322 B.C.E.) countered that there is nothing in the mind that does not first come in from the external world through the senses.

    B. F. Skinner A leading behaviorist, Skinner rejected introspection and studied how conse- quences shape behavior. Bachrach/Getty Images

    Sigmund Freud The controversial ideas of this famed personality theorist and therapist have influenced humanity’s self-understanding. © Bettmann/Corbis

    MyersEx9e_Ch01.indd 5MyersEx9e_Ch01.indd 5 10/25/12 10:52 AM10/25/12 10:52 AM




    More insight into nature’s influ- ence on behavior arose after a 22-year-old seafaring voyager, Charles Darwin, pondered the incredible species variation he encountered, including tortoises on one island that differed from those on nearby islands. His 1859 On the Origin of Species explained this diver- sity by proposing the evolutionary process of natural selection: From among chance variations, nature selects traits that best enable an

    organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment. Darwin’s principle of natural selection is still with us 150+ years later as biology’s organizing principle, and now an important principle for twenty-first-century psychology. This would surely have pleased Darwin, for he believed his theory explained not only animal structures (such as a polar bear’s white coat) but also animal behaviors (such as the emotional expressions associated with human lust and rage).

    The nature –nurture issue recurs throughout this text as today’s psychologists explore the relative contributions of biology and experience, asking, for example, how we humans are alike (because of our common biology and evolutionary history) and diverse (because of our differing environments). Are gender differences biologically predisposed or socially constructed? Is children’s grammar mostly innate or formed by experience? How are intelligence and personality differences influenced by heredity, and by envi- ronment? Are sexual behaviors more “pushed” by inner biology or “pulled” by external incentives? Should we treat psychological disorders—depression, for example—as disor- ders of the brain, disorders of thought, or both?

    Over and over again we will see that in contemporary science the nature – nurture tension dissolves: Nurture works on what nature endows. Our species is biologically endowed with an enormous capacity to learn and adapt. Moreover, every psychological event (every thought, every emotion) is simultaneously a biological event. Thus, depression can be both a brain disorder and a thought disorder.


    • What is contemporary psychology’s position on the nature–nurture debate?

    ANSWER: Psychological events often stem from the interaction of nature and nurture, rather than from either of them acting alone.

    Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis

    1-3: What are psychology’s levels of analysis and related perspectives?

    Each of us is a complex system that is part of a larger social system. But each of us is also composed of smaller systems, such as our nervous system and body organs, which are composed of still smaller systems—cells, molecules, and atoms.

    These tiered systems suggest different levels of analysis, which offer complemen- tary outlooks. It’s like explaining why grizzly bears hibernate. Is it because hibernation helped their ancestors to survive and reproduce? Because their inner physiology drives them to do so? Because cold environments hinder food gathering during winter? Such perspectives are complementary because “everything is related to everything else” (Brewer, 1996). Together, different levels of analysis form a bio psycho social approach, which integrates biological, psychological, and social-cultural factors (FIGURE 1.1).

    A nature-made nature–nurture experiment Because identical twins have the same genes, they are ideal participants in studies designed to shed light on hereditary and environ- mental influences on intelligence, personality, and other traits. Studies of identical and fraternal twins provide a rich array of findings—described in later chapters—that underscore the importance of both nature and nurture. (left) © Hola Images/agefotostock; (right) WoodyStock /Alamy

    natural selection the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.

    levels of analysis the differing comple- mentary views, from biological to psychologi- cal to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.

    biopsychosocial approach an inte- grated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis.

    MyersEx9e_Ch01.indd 6MyersEx9e_Ch01.indd 6 10/25/12 10:52 AM10/25/12 10:52 AM




    Each level provides a vantage point for viewing a behavior or mental process, yet each by itself is incomplete. Like different academic disciplines, psychology’s varied perspectives ask different questions and have their own limits. The different perspectives described in TABLE 1.1 complement one another. Consider, for example, how they shed light on anger:

    • Someone working from a neuroscience perspective might study brain circuits that cause us to be “red in the face” and “hot under the collar.”

    • Someone working from the evolutionary perspective might analyze how anger facili- tated the survival of our ancestors’ genes.

    • Someone working from the behavior genetics perspective might study how heredity and experience influence our individual differences in temperament.

    • Someone working from the psychodynamic perspective might view an outburst as an outlet for unconscious hostility.

    Psychological influences: • learned fears and other learned expectations • emotional responses • cognitive processing and perceptual interpretations

    Biological influences: • natural selection of adaptive traits • genetic predispositions responding to environment • brain mechanisms • hormonal influences

    Social-cultural influences: • presence of others • cultural, societal, and family expectations • peer and other group influences • compelling models (such as in the media)

    Behavior or mental process

    Table 1.1

    Psychology’s Current Perspectives

    Perspective Focus Sample Questions

    Neuroscience How the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences

    How do pain messages travel from the hand to the brain? How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives?

    Evolutionary How the natural selection of traits has promoted the survival of genes

    How does evolution influence behavior tendencies?

    Behavior genetics How our genes and our environment influence our individual differences

    To what extent are psychological traits such as intelligence, personality, sexual ori- entation, and vulnerability to depression products of our genes? Of our environment?

    Psychodynamic How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts

    How can someone’s personality traits and disorders be explained by unfulfilled wishes and childhood traumas?

    Behavioral How we learn observable responses How do we learn to fear particular objects or situations? What is the most effective

    way to alter our behavior, say, to lose weight or stop smoking?

    Cognitive How we encode, process, store, and retrieve information

    How do we use information in remembering? Reasoning? Solving problems?

    Social – cultural How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures

    How are we alike as members of one human family? How do we differ as products of our environment?


    JU ER

    GE N

    SC HW

    A RZ

    / A

    FP /G

    et ty

    Im ag


    FIGURE 1.1

    Biopsychosocial approach This integrated viewpoint incorporates various levels of analysis and offers a more complete picture of any given behavior or mental process.

    MyersEx9e_Ch01.indd 7MyersEx9e_Ch01.indd 7 10/25/12 10:52 AM10/25/12 10:52 AM




    © T

    he N

    ew Y

    or ke

    r C ol

    le ct

    io n,

    19 86

    , J . B

    . H an

    de ls

    m an

    fr om


    rt oo

    nb an

    k. co

    m . A

    ll Ri

    gh ts

    R es

    er ve


    “I’m a social scientist, Michael. That means I can’t explain electricity or anything like that, but if you ever want to know about people I’m your man.”

    Psychology in court Forensic psycholo- gists apply psychology’s principles and meth- ods in the criminal justice system. They may assess witness credibility, or testify in court on a defendant’s state of mind and future risk.

    Image Source/Punchstock

    Te d

    Fi tz

    ge ra

    ld , P

    oo l/

    A P

    Ph ot


    • Someone working from the behavioral perspective might attempt to determine which external stimuli trigger angry responses or aggressive acts.

    • Someone working from the cognitive perspective might study how our interpretation of a situation affects our anger and how our anger affects our thinking.

    • Someone working from the social – cultural perspective might explore how expressions of anger vary across cultural contexts.

    The point to remember: Like two-dimensional views of a three-dimensional object, each of psychology’s perspectives is helpful. But each by itself fails to reveal the whole picture.


    • What advantage do we gain by using the biopsychosocial approach in studying psychological events?

    ANSWER: By incorporating different levels of analysis, the biopsychosocial approach can provide a more complete view than any one perspective could offer.

    Psychology’s Subfields

    1-4: What are psychology’s main subfields?

    Picturing a chemist at work, you probably envision a white – coated scientist surrounded by glassware and high – tech equipment. Picture a psychologist at

    work and you would be right to envision

    • a white – coated scientist probing a rat’s brain. • an intelligence researcher measuring how quickly an infant shows boredom by

    looking away from a familiar picture.

    • an executive evaluating a new “healthy life styles” training program for employees. • someone at a computer analyzing data on whether adopted teens’ temperaments

    more closely resemble those of their adoptive parents or their biological parents.

    • a therapist listening carefully to a client’s depressed thoughts. • a traveler visiting another culture and collecting data on variations in human values

    and behaviors.

    • a teacher or writer sharing the joy of psychology with others.

    MyersEx9e_Ch01.indd 8MyersEx9e_Ch01.indd 8 10/25/12 10:52 AM10/25/12 10:52 AM




    The cluster of subfields we call psychology is a meeting ground for different dis- ciplines. Thus, it’s a perfect home for those with wide -ranging interests. In its diverse activities, from biological experimentation to cultural comparisons, psychology is united by a common quest: describing and explaining behavior and the mind underlying it.

"Looking for a Similar Assignment? Get Expert Help at an Amazing Discount!"