Religious Studies


H CHRONOLOGY OF AMERICAN RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY GENERAL CHRONOLOGY I. Genesis of the Earth: 4.6 Billion B.P. II. Origin of life (single-celled creatures): 3.6 Billion B.P. III. Origin of pre-Humans: 5-1million years ago Development of hominid “ancestors” of humankind (Australopithecus, Homo habilis, Homo erectus) IV. Origin of Humanity: 100, 000 years ago (homo sapiens sapiens) Emergence of anatomically modern Homo Sapiens Sapiens V. Origin of History and Civilizations: 10,000 B.C. Slow development of civilization (farming, metallurgy, urban life or villages, art and music). VI. Origin of major religions and civilizations: 5000- 2000 B.C. Great historical civilizations emerge in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus Valley, and China VII. Origin of major world religions (2000 BC-1600 CE).




 4000 years of religious history (2000 B.C-2000 C.E): ***2nd millennium B.C.: Hinduism, Biblical Judaism

– Judaism (between 2000 and 1000 B.C.E) – Hinduism (between 1500 and 1000 B.C.E)

6th century B.C.:  Buddhism, Jainism,  Confucianism, Taoism, Shintoism,  Judaism (Bible and Talmud written, Temple cult, Priests)  Hinduism.  Hellenism: Greek Golden Age (Philosophy, Science, Democracy): Foundation of Western civilization

1st century C.E. : birth of Christianity and Rabbinic Judaism; Buddhism enters China 6th century C.E.

 Islam (Muhammad 570 – 632) on the rise (Islam: 7th century C.E., 622 CE)

 Buddhism enters Japan and Korea  Europe falls into Darkness (Dark ages 5/6th-15th/16th century)  Progressive Rise of Christianity as the official religion of Europe

***2nd millennium C.E. – Christianity

o Orthodox Church (1054: 11th century CE) o Protestantism (1517: 16th century CE)

– Sikhism (16th century CE) – New Religions (16th-20th century)





 28,000 years ago:

oldest evidence of African religious expression found on rock painting in southern Namibia in the Apollo XI cave dated some 28,000 years ago. =>See Maret, Pierre de, Archaeological and other prehistoric evidence of traditional African religious expression in Blakely, Thomas D., et al., Religion in Africa: Experience and Expression (Portsmouth: Heinemann,1994); p.186.

 313-1945: Persecution of indigenous people and pagan religions

(by Christianity and later on Islam) 1850-1950: beginning of revival of pagan religions 1950-2050: Neo-pagan religions officially accepted

and respected along other world religions.




THE REVIVAL OF “PAGANISM” or INDIGENOUS RELIGIONS (1950-2000) Recognising the need for a new approach to the issue of indigenous peoples, the

United Nation General Assembly on 18 December 1990 proclaimed 1993 the “International Year of the World’s Indigenous People” (Resolution 45/164)

The United Nation General Assembly on 23 December 1994 designated 9 August to be observed as the “International Day of the World’s Indigenous People” every year during the International Decade of the World’s Indigenous People (Resolution 49/214). The date marks the day of the first meeting in 1982 of the Working Group of Indigenous Populations of the Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities of the Commission on Human Rights. First observed in 1995, its commemoration offers the world community an opportunity to reiterate the principles of respect for human rights enshrined in the Charter and to find solutions to alleviate the plight of indigenous people.

NATIVE AMERICANS Native spirituality was suppressed by the U.S. and Canadian governments. Spiritual leaders ran the risk of jail sentences of up to 30 years for simply practicing their rituals. This came to an end in the U.S. in 1978 when the Freedom of Religion Act was passed.




CHRISTIANITY IN AMERICA 1493 CE: “Padroado” (Spain and Portugal divide responsibility of converting

inhabitants of newly discovered lands to Christianity. 1521: Hernan Cortez conquers Aztec Empire for Spain; Christianization of

Central America begins 1532: Francisco Pizarro conquers Inca Empire for Spain; Christianization of

South America begins 1607: English colony established in Virginia; Christianization of North America

begins Evangelization as a tool of Colonialism and conquest: => 1493: in his bull Inter Caetera (1493): Pope Alexander VI gives to European kings “sacred instructions” to overthrow paganism and establish the Christian faith in all barbarous nations. => 1452 and 1455: in his bulls Dum Diversas (1452) and Romanus Pontifex (1455), Pope Nicholas V gives the kings of Portugal the right to dispossess and eternally enslave Muslims, pagans, and black peoples in general. Dum Diversas clearly stipulates this right to invade, conquer, expel, and fight Muslims, pagans, and other enemies of Christ wherever they may be. Christian kings, following the Pope’s decisions could occupy pagan kingdoms, principalities, lordships, possessions and dispossess them of their personal property, land, and whatever they might have. 1945-1965: End of European colonialism, and revival of indigenous

religions  1945: Creation of the UN (United Nations)  1948: UN declaration of human rights  1950-1970: Decolonization  In 1951: the last law against Witchcraft was repealed in England. 3 years later a book was published, written by Gerald Brousseau Gardner,

who professed to be an actual witch. Raymond Buchkland, The Witch Book: The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft, Wicca, and Neo-paganism (Detroit: Visible Ink Press; 2002);p.xii.




 1965: Council Vatican II 1973-2003 (especially 1970s and 1990s):  Pagan religions officially recognized by various governments The UN promotes the protection and celebration of indigenous people,

languages, cultures and religions. 1973-2003; 1970s and 1990s: 1970-2000: Decline of Christianity in Europe and rise of Neo-Pagan religions in

Europe (where they also become officially recognized).  In Europe, the governments of Iceland (in 1973), Norway (in 1996 and

1999),and Denmark (in 2003) have officially recognized Neopagan religions which

worship Viking Gods such as Odin and Thor.  1973: the government of Iceland officially recognizes Neopagan religions  1978: Native American religion becomes legal in the U.S. when the

Freedom of Religion Act was passed (in 1978)  1993: A Supreme court decision recognizes the right of Santeria to perform

animal sacrifices in Florida (USA) 1993 also proclaimed the “International Year of the World’s Indigenous People” (by the UN)  1994: Pope John-Paul II officially recognizes the values and dignity of

African traditional religions (during the African Synod held in Rome) 1994: An amendment to American Indian Religious Freedom Act made it legal for peyote to be used for ceremonial purposes in Native American religious rituals.  1996: Official recognition of Voodoo in Benin

and of Neopagan religions in Norway (1996 and 1999)  2003: Official recognition of Voodoo in Haiti and of Neopagan religions in Denmark




THE CREATION OF THE UNITED STATE OF AMERICA (General framework) 17th-20th century: 4 centuries of US history 16th century: exploration of the land (Spain, France, England) 17th-18th: settlement and colonialism (Spanish and French territories; a British colony) 19th century: the birth of the new nation (USA) 20th century: rise on the world stage Detailed outline I. Exploration of the land II. Colonized America III. Independent America 1772- 1786- The Revolution 1787- 1820- The New Nation 1820-1855- Antebellum The Civil War Period 1865-1897- Reconstruction and Industrialization World Stage (20th century; 1897-1920; 1950-2000; 1990-2007) (the superpower and global empire) The Twenties The Depression World War II Postwar America 1945-1960 The Sixties- 1960-1974 America 1975-2000





I. The Age of Exploration (16th century: 1492-1600) and beginning of colonialism

* 1482: Diego Cao reaches Congo River Beginning of European colonialism in Africa until 1994 (Mandela elected the first black President in South Africa) * 1492: “discovery of America” and colonization of the Americas

Independence of Black Africa 1957: Ghana (first black African country to gain independence) 1975: Angola, Mozambique, Cape Verde, and São Tomé and Principe (from Portugal) and Comoros (from France) 1977: Djibouti (from France) 1980: Zimbabwe (from Britain) 1990: Namibia (from White South Africa) 1994: South Africa (end of Apartheid regime: Mandela President

Independence of some other countries

Netherlands: 1579 (from Spain) USA: 1776 (from UK) Canada: 1867 (from UK) Ireland: 1922 (from UK) Kuwait: 19 June 1961 (from UK) Bangladesh: 1971 (from West Pakistan) Cambodia: 1953 (from France) Cuba: 1902 (from Spain, but remained under US control until 1959) Egypt: 1922 (nominal independence from UK; 1956 departure of last British colonial troops) Greece: 1829 (from the Ottoman Empire) Vietnam: 1945 (from France) India: 1947 (from UK) Pakistan: 1947 (from UK) Indonesia: 1949 (legally independent from the Netherlands, but independence proclaimed in 1945) Kuwait: 19 June 1961 (from UK) Lebanon: 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration) Lithuania: 1990 ( from Soviet Union which recognizes it in 1991) Malaysia: 1957 (from UK) Mexico: 1810 (from Spain) Morocco: 1956 (from France) Philippines: 1946 (from US) Romania: 1881 (from Turkey; republic proclaimed 30 December 1947)





• 1492 Christopher Columbus in America 1513 Juan Ponce De Leon-Explored Florida 1513- Vasco Nunez de Balboa Discovered the Pacific 1519-1521: Hernan Cortez conquers Aztec Empire for Spain; Christianization of

Central America begins 1532: Francisco Pizarro conquers Inca Empire for Spain; Christianization of

South America begins 1519 Ferdinand Magellan- Circled the earth 1524 Giovanni De Verrazano- Entered New York Harbor 1531/32:: Francisco Pizarro conquers Inca Empire for Spain; Christianization of

South America begins 1542- Hernado De Soto Explored the Missisippi 1609 Henry Hudson Explored the Hudson River II. 17th-18th: settlement and colonialism (a British colony) 1587- Roanoke Colony Founded 1588: Spanish Armada Defeated by the British

The immediate future of North America was settled when the British fleet destroyed the Spanish Armada, which had planned to attack England. The defeat of the Spanish forces marked the beginning of the decline of Spanish power and the ascendancy of the British. The way was now clear for the British to colonize North America without Spanish interference.

1607: English colony established in Virginia; (English land at Jamestown; Jamestown colony founded): Christianization of North America begins 1610- Spanish Founded Sante Fe 1613: Princess Pocahontas was captured by Jamestown settlers (who wanted food from her father, the powerful chief Powhatan in Virginia. She converted to Christianity and married John Rolfe (in 1614), the Jamestown settler responsible for the introduction of tobacco into the settlement. Pocahontas went to England, where she died from a disease. Her son Thomas returned from England, claimed




the land of his parents and became a government official in Virginia. 1616-20- Small Pox Epidemic Between 1616 and 1620, small pox (brought by European settlers) ravaged the Indians of New England. The epidemic virtually wiped out many of the Indian tribes of New England. 1618/1619: First Blacks Brought to America (they Arrive in Jamestown) 1620- Mayflower Lands at Plymouth Rock 1624- New Netherlands Founded 1630- Massachusetts Bay Colony Founded 1634- Catholics Founded Maryland 1635- Roger Williams Founds Rhode Island 1637- Settlers Killed 500 Indians 1638- Connecticut Founded 1638- First Slaves Arrive in Massachusetts 1638- New Sweden Founded 1659- Quakers Executed 1660- Quaker Woman Hanged 1664- Dutch Yield to British 1664- Black-White Marriages Outlawed 1665- New Jersey Founded 1681- Pennsylvania Founded by William Penn 1682- LaSalle Claims Mississippi 1688- Quakers Oppose Slavery 1690- Twenty Executed in Salem for Witchery 1733- Georgia Founded 1763- British Declare Land West of Appalachians Indian: Colonists Move West of Appalachians The British proclaimed that the land to the West of the Appalachian mountains was Indian land, not to be settled by the colonists. The proclamation was greatly resented by the colonists, many of whom disregarded it. It was one of many grievances that the colonists had against the English. 1773- First Black Church Founded In 1773, George Leile and Andrew Bryan organized the first Negro Baptist Church in the American colonies. The church, located in Savannah, Georgia, was the first church established only for Blacks.




1775- Society of Abolition of Slavery Established 1772-1783: War of independence (US versus England) 1776: US Declaration of Independence (from Britain) White men with property can vote. (poor white are excluded) A few black men can vote in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Connecticut.

Independence of other countries in the Americas: 1804: Haiti proclaimed its independence from France (First Black Republic in the world; successful rebellion by slaves) 1816: Argentina’s independence from Spain 1821: Mexico’s independence from Spain. 1824: Peru’s independence from Spain 1822: Brazil’s independence from the hands of the Portuguese. 1902: Cuba gains independence from Spain, but the US that helped Cuba in its war against Spain retained (under the Cuban constitution) the right to intervene in Cuban affairs and to supervise its finances and foreign relations. Under the Platt Amendment, Cuba also agreed to lease to the U.S. the naval base at Guantánamo Bay.

1789: Establishment of the American democracy. White men with property can vote. Poor white men, all white women, Native Americans and enslaved African-Americans cannot vote 1790: Between 1770 and 1790: each state handles its own naturalization laws. In 1790 the US passes its first law that grants citizenship to white men and some women. The right to vote is only for whites who have lived in the country for two years. In 1798 the law is changed so that white immigrants must live in the US for 14 years before they can become citizens. This changed to 5 years in 1902. In 1820 the property laws are taken off the books and whites can vote even if they do not own property. But they must pay a poll tax or be able to read, and, in some places, they must pass religious tests to vote. 1840: Poll taxes, literacy taxes, and religion tests are taken off the books. Only white men can vote. 1793- First Fugitive Slave Law 1793- Cotton Gin 1800- Slave Uprising Near Richmond





III. 19th century: – the US expands its territory up to the Pacific Ocean – final stage in the formation of America as we know it today

1803 and 1848: expansion of US territory: 1803: Louisiana purchased from France by Thomas Jefferson (almost 23% of modern USA) 1846-1848: The Mexican war brings another large territory to the US The land purchased from France contained all of present-day Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, much of North Dakota, nearly all of South Dakota, northeastern New Mexico, northern Texas, Minnesota south of Mississippi River, Louisiana on both sides of the Mississippi River, including the city of New Orleans. the portions of Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado east of the Continental Divide. The Mexican war Mexico capitulated and the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo ceded half of Mexico’s territory to the US. The US took from Mexico a huge territory that includes: Present-day states of

1. Texas (rich in oil) 2. California (gold discovered in 1849, and oil) 3. Nevada (rich in silver) 4. Utah

And parts of 5. Colorado 6. Arizona 7. New Mexico, and 8. Wyoming




1848: The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo ends the Mexican-American War. The treaty guarantees citizenship to Mexicans living in the newly acquired territories of Arizona, California, New Mexico, Texas, and Nevada. However voting rights are denied. In other words, Mexican-Americans are not allowed to vote despite having US citizenship. Property laws, language and literacy requirements keep people from voting. “Night Riders” use intimidation and violence. Note: Origin of Hispanics : 80% from Mexico, Porto Rico and Cuba 64% are of Mexican origin 11% Puerto Ricans 5% Exilic Cubans 1807- Slave Importation Banned: In March 1807, the Congress passed a law prohibiting the importation of slaves into the United States. The law carried a fine of $800 for knowingly buying an illegally imported slave to $20,000 for equipping a slave ship. However, this law was poorly enforced and often violated. 1830: Indian Removal Act The Congress voted to exchange Indian lands in the East for new lands in the west. The agreements were supposed to be negotiated with the Indians, but many refused to agree, and were forced off their land by the government. The Cherokees of Georgia attempted to resist their removal by rather unique means: they filed suit against the State of Georgia (who was trying to remove them ) in the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court, under the stewardship of Chief Justice Marshall ruled in favor of the Indians and ordered the President to protect the Indians. Jackson responded “John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it.” 1838- Trail of Tears: The US army, led by General Winfield Scott, forcefully removed the Indians and made them march westward. The march, much of which took place in the winter, led to the deaths of thousands of Indians, and became known as the “Trail of Tears.” (1871: Indian reservations)




1852- Uncle Tom’s Cabin Published 1857- Dred Scott Decision: Dred Scott was a slave who sued for his freedom. The Supreme Court, in a far-reaching ruling, stated that Negroes were not citizens and had no right to sue. In addition, it ruled that the Missouri Compromise was illegal, in that it denied slave owners the right to bring their property (slaves) into free territories. 1859- John Brown Raid 1860- Lincoln Elected; Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts allow free black men to vote. 1862- Blacks Enlist in Union Army 1863- Emancipation Proclamation: On January 1st, 1863, President Lincoln issued a Proclamation of Emancipation which freed all of the slaves in those states under rebellion who had not yet been conquered by the Northern armies. Although the proclamation did not in fact free even one slave at that moment, it heralded the end of slavery. 1863- Draft Riots in New York




1865- Thirteenth Amendment Ratified: On December 18th 1865, the13th Amendment to the Constitution was officially ratified. This Amendment stated that neither slavery nor involuntary servitude could exist in the United States.

The American War of Independence against Britain (1776-83) and the French Revolution (1789) paved the way for the abolition of slave trade and slavery. 1807: Britain had become the first major European nation to abolish the trade in slaves. (The revolutionary government in France imposed a temporary French ban in the early 1790s, but this was soon lifted and French trading continued. The Danish government had in fact banned its citizens from the trade in 1805.) This did not abolish the institution of slavery itself, but it was an important first step in that direction. It made it illegal for British subjects to transport captive Africans across the Atlantic for sale into slavery. The newly-independent United States of America officially banned its subjects from engaging in the trade in 18O8 and Holland and France followed in 1814 and 1817 respectively. But though a small body of high-minded Europeans argued long and hard against the institution of slavery, it was by no means an entirely humanitarian, or even a solely European initiative, which finally led to abolition. The African victims of slavery and the slave trade had struggled against their loss of liberty and rebelled constantly. The most important factor leading to abolition was that by the early nineteenth century slavery and the slave trade were in many respects becoming uneconomic. Slavery was finally abolished in 1834 in British colonies, in 1848 in French colonies in 1860 in Cuba in 1865 in the Southern states of the USA. in 1888 in Brazil

1865- Freedmen’s Bureau Created 1865: The Civil war ends 1866: the Civil Rights Act of 1866 grants citizenship to native-born Americans but excludes Native Americans. 1867- Reconstruction Act Passed 1867- Howard University Founded





– First Black Senator; – the 15th Amendment establishes the right of African-American men to

vote. In the South especially, poll taxes, reading requirements, physical violence, property destruction, hiding the polls, and economic pressures keep most African-Americans from voting.

1871- Indians to Reservations The overall policy of the US government evolved into a plan of settling all the Indians in reservations. 1875- Civil Rights Bill Passed: In 1875, a Civil Rights Bill was passed by Congress. The law stated that all public accommodations should be open to former slaves. But in 1883, the Supreme Court ruled that the Civil Rights Act of 1875 was unconstitutional. And in 1896 Segregation is officially established by the Supreme Court (“Separate but Equal”) 1877- Reconstruction Ends 1877- First Black Graduates from West Point 1881- Tuskegee Institute Founded; “Century of Dishonor” Published 1882: The Chinese Exclusion Act bars people of Chinese ancestry from becoming citizens. They cannot vote. 1886: Geronimo, the apache chief, surrendered. This ended Native American resistance to the US government.

1890s until 1960s: The “Vanishing Indians.” Most Americans came to believe that “Indians tribes” had largely been exterminated, that Native Americans had ceased to exist 1960s: The “Indian Movement” caught people by surprise





1887: The Dawes Act gives citizenship only to Native Americans who give up their tribal affiliations. 1890:

– Wounded Knee; – The Indian Naturalization Act grants citizenship to Native Americans in an

application process similar to immigrant naturalization. – Blacks excluded from Southern Politics

1901: Congress grants citizenship to Native Americans living in the “Indian Territory” (Oklahoma) 1902- Lone Wolfe v. Hitchock: The Supreme Court decided, in 1902, in the case of Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, that the Congress could abrogate any treaty with the Indians. This severely limited Indian treaty rights. 1896- Segregation Legal: On May 18th, 1896 the Supreme Court announced its decision in the case of Plessy v. Ferguson. Plessy was a Black man who was refused transport on a white section of a train. His lawyers claimed that this violated the 15th Amendment. The Supreme Court disagreed, and stated that “separate but equal” was constitutional.




IV. 20th century (Superpower) 1500-1950: Europe colonizes the whole world 1776: the US gains independence from British colonialism 1914-1918: World War I 1940-1945: World War II => European powers collapse 1950-2000: the US emerges as the world’s superpower (and the new colonial empire) 1945: Creation of the UN (United Nations) 1948: Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UN) 1965: Vatican II: Copernican revolution in the Catholic Church 1945-1975: – Independence movements around the world (against European colonialism) – Rise of Human Rights and Interreligious Dialogue (No more religious persecution: Religious freedom promoted around the globe) 1990-2000: Protection of indigenous people and culture, revival of indigenous religions

1904- Booker T Washington, Black Leader 1904- Niagara Movement Begun 1908- NAACP Founded 1915-1970 (WWI and II – independence struggle, decolonization era) 1917- Blacks and World War I 1917: all Puerto Ricans were granted U.S. Citizenship. 1920: Women gain the right to vote




(Aug. 26, 1920: The 19th Amendment to the Constitution, granting women (White and African American women) the right to vote, is signed into law by Secretary of State Bainbridge Colby. 1923: US citizenship for Asian Indians The court ruling in the case Bhagat Sing Thind v. The US rules that Asian Indians are eligible for citizenship. Technically it means that they can vote because they are now citizens. However, almost all immigrants who are people of color continue to be denied the right to vote. 1924- Indians Granted Citizenship: After the service given by Indians (Native Americans) during World War I, the Congress, on June 2, 1924, offered full citizenship to all Indians. But many western states refuse to allow them to vote. (However all Puerto Ricans were granted U.S. Citizenship in1917; De La Torre, p.52, Latino theology) 1934- Roosevelt Administration Aids Indians 1936- Jesse Owens Wins Four Gold Medals 1936- NAACP Sues for Equal Pay 1940- First Black General: October 16, 1940: Benjamin Davis, Sr. was appointed Brigadier General, thus becoming the first Black general in the United States Army. Davis was born in Washington 1877, and studied at Howard University. He entered the Army during the Spanish American War. 1941- FDR Forbids Discrimination: June 25, 1941: President Franklin Roosevelt signed an executive order forbidding discrimination in the defense industries and government training programs. Roosevelt signed the order after he was unable to convince Black leaders, led by A. Philip Randolph, to stop organizing a march on Washington by Blacks. When Roosevelt signed the order, the Black leaders called off their march. 1943: Chinese Exclusion Act is repealed, making immigrants of Chinese




ancestry eligible for citizenship. 1944- Adam Clayton Powell Elected to Congress 1944- All White Primary Illegal 1946: President Truman appointed a national committee to make recommendations on racial injustice in the United States. 1946: Filipinos are now allowed to become citizens. 1947- Jackie Robinson Becomes First Black Major Leaguer 1948- Military Desegregated: President Truman issued an executive order whose purpose was to insure full integration of the United States military. 1950- Ralph Bunche Receives Nobel Prize 1953- Washington’s Restaurants Desegregated 1953- Congress Passes Termination Act: The House passed Resolution 108, which called for the termination of all reservations and special rights for Indians. During the remaining part of the 1950’s, nearly 100 tribes, bands or communities were terminated from direct connection with the feceral government. 1954- Schools Ordered to Desegregate The supreme court rules on the landmark case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kans., unanimously agreeing that segregation in public schools is unconstitutional. The ruling paves the way for large-scale desegregation. The decision overturns the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson ruling that sanctioned “separate but equal” segregation of the races, ruling that “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.” It is a victory for NAACP attorney Thurgood Marshall, who will later return to the Supreme Court as the nation’s first black justice. 1945: UN created 1948: Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1945-1980: Global movement to end European colonialism in Asia and Africa 1955-1965: Civil Rights Movement and “Black Power” movement (Martin Luther King and Malcolm X)




1960-1980 (60s and 70s): Decolonization of Africa 1955- Bus Boycott Begins In December 1955, Rosa Parks, a black seamstress in Montgomery, Alabama, refused to surrender her seat when she was ordered to by the bus driver. She was arrested. A citywide boycott of the bus company resulted. In december 1956, the Supreme Court ruled that segregation on public buses was illegal. 1957- Voting Act of 1957: The US Congress passed theVoting Rights Act of 1957. This was the first civil rights legislation to pass Congress since the end of Reconstruction. It was aimed at ending the barriers created to stop the voting of Blacks in the South. The 1960s 1961- Freedom Riders: Throughout 1961, groups of White and Black students who were dubbed “Freedom Riders” began a series of well-publicized rides on Southern buses. The Freedom riders were often assaulted along the way. In some cases federal Marshals were used to try to protect the riders. 1962- Termination Ends President Kennedy Terminates Termination Actions: Acceding to growing Indian protests, President Kennedy ended the termination attempts. 1962- James Meredith Enters University of Mississippi: Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black ordered the immediate admittance of James Meredith to the University of Mississippi. Mississippi’s governor, Ross Barnett, attempted to bar Meredith’s entry, but Federalized National Guard troops forced his entry. 1963 (June 10th) Congress passes the Equal Pay Act, making it illegal for




employers to pay a woman less than what a man would receive for the same job. 1963- March On Washington 1964- Civil Rights Workers Slain 1964- King Receives Nobel Peace Prize 1964- Selma to Montgomery March 1964: Title VII of the Civil Rights Act bars discrimination in employment on the basis of race and sex. At the same time it establishes the Equal Employment opportunity Commission (EEOC) to investigate complaints and impose penalties. 1965 (Aug.10): Congress passes the Voting Rights Act, making it easier for Southern blacks to register to vote. Literacy tests, poll taxes, and other rush requirements that were used to restrict black voting are made illegal. 1965 (Sept. 24) Asserting that civil rights laws alone are not enough to remedy discrimination, President Johnson issues Executive Order 11246, which enforces affirmative action for the first time. It requires government contractors to “take affirmative action” toward prospective minority employees in all aspects of hiring and employment. 1967: Executive Order 11375 expands President Lyndon Johnson’s affirmative action policy of 1965 to cover discrimination based on gender. As a result, federal agencies and contractors must take active measures to ensure that women as well as minorities enjoy the same educational and employment opportunities as white males. 1965- Malcolm X Assassinated (Martin Luther King in 1968 and Patrice Lumumba in 1961) 1965- Los Angeles Riots 1967: (June 12): the supreme court rules that prohibiting interracial marriage is unconstitutional. Sixteen states that still banned interracial marriage at tht time are forced to revise their laws. 1967- First Black Senator Since Reconstruction 1967- First Black Supreme Court Justice 1968- Martin Luther King Jr. Assassinated




1973; as a result of Roe v. Wade the supreme court establishes a woman’s right to safe and legal abortion, overriding the anti-abortion laws of many states. 1974: The Equal Credit Opportunity Act prohibits discrimination in consumer credit practices on the basis of sex, race, marital status, religion, national origin, age, or receipt of public assistance. 1974- Samuel Gravely Becomes the First Black Admiral in US Navy 1976- Tom Bradley (African American), Mayor of Los Angeles 1976: the first marital rape law is enacted in Nebraska, making it illegal for a husband to rape his wife. 1977: Andrew Young (African American), US Ambassador to UN 1978: the Pregnancy Discrimination Act bans employment discrimination against pregnant women. Under the Act, a woman cannot be fired or denied a job or a promotion because she is or may become pregnant, nor can she be forced to take a pregnancy leave if she is willing and able to work. 1978: the American Indian Religious Freedom Act (AIRFA), a federal law and a joint resolution of Congress pledged to protect and preserve the traditional religious rights of American Indians, Eskimos, Aleuts, and Native Hawaiians. Native spirituality was suppressed by the U.S. and Canadian governments. Spiritual leaders ran the risk of jail sentences of up to 30 years for simply practicing their rituals. This came to an end in the U.S. in 1978 when the Freedom of Religion Act was passed. 1993:

– A Supreme court decision recognizes the right of Santeria to perform animal sacrifices in Florida (USA)

– 1993 also proclaimed the “International Year of the World’s Indigenous People” (by the UN) 1994:

– An amendment to AIRFA made it legal for peyote to be used for ceremonial purposes in Native American religious rituals.

– Pope John-Paul II officially recognizes the values and dignity of African traditional religions (during the African Synod held in Rome)

– 1984- Jesse Jackson Runs for President




1987- Powell, Security Advisor to President 1989- Powell, Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff NEW CHRISTIAN THEOLOGIES The 1970’s (1970-1979): rise of feminist theology in the West Liberation theology in Latin America, African theology, Black theology in the US AFRICAN THEOLOGY (1945-1995) 1945: Placide Tempels, Bantu Philosophy 1956: Des Pretres noirs s’interrogent (Paris: edition du Cerf, 1956) 1956: Kagame, Alexis, La Philosophie bantu-rwandaise de l’être. Brussels: Académie Royale des Sciences coloniales, 1956. 1960: Birth of African theological discourse during the debate on African theology held at the Faculty of Catholic Theology in Kinshasa ( Student Tshibangu Thishiku versus Alfred Vanneste, Dean of the Faculty and proponent of “Universal theology.”) 1965: Mulago, Vincent, Un visage africain du Christianisme. (Paris: Présence Africaine, 1965). 1969: Mbiti, John. African Religions and Philosophy. Portsmouth,Heinemann, 1969. 1970: Mbiti, John. Concepts of God in Africa. New York, Washington: Praeger Publishers, 1970. 1973: Mulago, Vincent, La Religion Traditionnelle des Bantu et leur vision du monde. Kinshasa: Presses Universitaires du Zaïre, 1973. 1976: Eugene Kabanga, Je suis un homme (Lubumbashi, Pastoral letter) 1976: Hebga, M. Emancipation d’Eglises sous tutelle. Essai sur l’ère postmissionnaire. Paris: Présence africaine, 1976. 1979: Appiah-Kubi, Kofi & Torres, Sergio, eds, African Theology en route. Maryknoll, NY : Orbis Books, 1979.




1981: Eboussi Boulaga, F., Christianisme sans fetiche: Revelation et domination. (Paris: Presence Africaine, 1981) English version:Christianity without Fetishes: An African Critique and Recapture of Christianity. New York/Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1984. 1982: Ela, Jean-Marc, Le Cri de l’homme africain: questions aux chretiens et aux eglises d’Afrique. (Paris: l’Harmattan, 1982) English version: African Cry.(New York/Maryknoll: Orbis Books,1986). 1984: Bakole Wa Ilunga, Paths of liberation, Third World Spirituality (New York: Orbis, 1984). 1985: Ecumenical Association of Third World Theologians held in Cairo Documents published by Engelbert Mveng, dir., Spiritualite et liberation en Afrique. Rencontre panafricaine de l’association oecumenique des theologiens du tiers-monde, le caire, 24-28 aout 1985. (Paris: l’Harmattan, 1987) 1989: Bacinoni, “Bible et identité africaine.” Théologie Africaine: Bilan et perspectives. 17ème Semaine théologiques de Kinshasa. Facultés Catholiques de Kinshasa, 1989. 1990: Inculturation et libération en Afrique aujourd’hui. Revue Africaine de Théologie; vol. N0s27-28., 1990. 1990: Abraham, K.C. ed., Third World Theologies: Commonalities and Divergences Maryknoll: Orbis Books,1990. 1990: Bujo, Bénézet, African Christian Morality: At the Age of Inculturation. Nairobi: Daughters of Saint Paul, 1990. 1993: Eboussi-Boulaga, F. Les Conférences Nationales en Afrique Noire. Paris: Karthala, 1993. 1994: First Synod of African Bishops held in Rome documents published in 1996: Browne, Maura, ed., The African Synod: Documents, Reflections, Perspectives (Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1996) 1994: Ela, Jean-Marc,“Christianity and Liberation in Africa” in Gibellini, Rosino, ed., Paths of African theology. ( Maryknoll: Orbis Books,1994.) 1994: Martey, Emmanuel, African Theology: Inculturation and Liberation.




Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 1994. 1994: Gibellini, Rosino, ed., Paths of African Theology. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1994. 1994: Baur, John, 2000 years of Christianity in Africa: an African history 62-1992. (Nairobi: Pauline Publications, 1994). 1995: Isichei, Elizabeth, A History of Christianity in Africa: From Antiquity to the Present. (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1995). 1997: Bujo, Bénézet, The Ethical Dimension of Community: The African Model and the Dialogue between North and South. Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa, 1997. 1999: The African Bible (Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa, 1999) Black Theology (The Bible, Christianity, Racism, anc Colonialism) 1966: “Black Power: Statement by the National Committee of Negro churchmen“

(Published in the New York Times, July 31, 1966) 1968: Assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King. 1969: James H. Cone,, Black Theology and Black Power. (New York; Seabury Press, 1969). 1970: James H. Cone, A Black Theology of Liberation. (Philadelphia: Lippincott Co., 1970). 1975: James H. Cone, God of the Oppressed. (Seabury Press: 1975, first edition) 1979: Gayraud S. Wilmore and James H. Cone, ed., Black Theology: A Documentary history,volume one:1966-1979.

(Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books,1979). 1988: Katie G. Cannon, Black Womanist Ethics.

(Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1988) 1989: Jacquelyn Grant, White Women’s Christ and Black Women’s Jesus:

Feminist Christology and Womanist Response. (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1989)

1991: Cain Hope Felder, ed., Stony The Road We Trod: African American Biblical Interpretation. (Minneapolis: Fortress Press,1991)




1991: James H. Cone, Martin & Malcolm &America: A Dream or a Nightmare. (Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 1991) 1993: James H. Cone, ed. Black Theology: A Documentary history,

Volume two: 1980-1992.

(Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books,1993). African and African American Bibles (1993-1999) – 1993: The Original African Heritage Study Bible (Nashville: The James C. Winston Publishing Company, 1993; 1st ed). – 1995: Holy Bible. African American Jubilee Edition (New York: American Bible Society, 1995) – 1999: The African Bible (Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa, 1999)

Latino theology (in the 1980s): See the “Selected Annotated Bibliography” in the textbook, De La Torre, Latino/a Theologies; pp.175-199. 1981: the “Riverside Manifesto” (Birth of Latino theology in the US) 1987: Andres G. Guerrero, A Chicano Theology. (Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 1987). 1993: Maria Pilar Aquino, Our Cry for Life: A Feminist Theology from Latin America. (Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 1993). 1999: Luis G. Pedraja, Jesus Is My Uncle: Christology from a Hispanic Perspective. (Nashville: Abingdom Press, 1999) 2001: Miguel A. De La Torre and Edwin David Aponte, Introducing Latino/a Theologies. (Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 2001) Native American theology (in the 1990s): 1994: Vine Deloria, God is red: a native view of religion.




(Golden, Colorado: North American Press, 1994). 2004: Clara Sue Kidwell, Homer Noley and George E. “Tink” Tinker,

A Native American Theology. (New York, Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 2001)

"Looking for a Similar Assignment? Get Expert Help at an Amazing Discount!"