Special Education Law


I’ve attached the case study, power points from the first 6 chapters (will attach others in the coming weeks) the rubric, work sample of what it should look like, and the instructions are listed below.


Each chapter must be written APA form, 12 font, Times New Roman.

1.5 pages for each of the 14 chapters totaling 21 pages.

The main refence is The Law and Special Education, 5th Edition, Pearson Publishing (2012) but you may use up to 2 additional if necessary.

Yell, M. L. (2012). The Law and Special Education. Pearson.


Key Assessment– EDU-3340-Final Project: Special Ed Law Case Study; A Comprehensive Study of Special Education Law Using Writing a Journal Focusing on a Special Education Student and Their Family. (70 points) (Rubrics points/grading scale will be provided).

* A Comprehensive Study of Special Education Law includes all of the topics included in the textbook chapters enhanced by an understanding of the Ten Step Special Education Process. Discussing the issues encountered by a Special Education Student for each of these topics in a journal format will serve as the focus for the key assessment for this course.

* All topics are included in the chapters of the textbook.

** The Ten Step Special Education Process is as follows:

Step 1. The child is identified as possibly needing special education and related services; Child Find, Referral, or request for evaluation.

Step 2. The child is evaluated.

Step 3. Eligibility is decided.

Step 4. The child is found eligible for services.

Step 5. IEP meeting is scheduled.

Step 6. IEP meeting is held, and the IEP is written.

Step 7. After the IEP is written, services are provided.

Step 8. Progress is measured and reported to parents.

Step 9. IEP is reviewed.

Step 10. The child is reevaluated.

* A Case Study Special Education Student will be created by each candidate and used to address all the topics in the chapters from the textbook. In order to create this fictional yet credible student, the following components must be included;

  • student’s fictitious name
  • age
  • family composition
  • information about the student’s disability, such as its name
  • definition of the disability
  • history of the disability
  • cause or theories about its cause
  • description of its prevalence and characteristics
  • how it is diagnosed and assessed, and what types of educational interventions
  • modifications and accommodations service and support, which are usually used to assist the student with this disability
  • Are Assistive Technologies necessary for this student’s success in school?
  • What is the family’s impact on this Special Education student’s success, and what is the impact of this student on the functioning of the family?

***Add this information to the beginning of your paper as an introduction, after your title page.

* In the form of a Journal with an entry of 1.5 – 2 pages at least for each of the **topics located in the textbook (Chapter titles are the topics for this project) which will equal to a minimum of 21 pages for 14 chapters, discuss how the Rights and Privileges of this Special Education student and their family are protected by the aspects of Special Education Law that are described in that chapter. Tell the story of how that chapter affected that child’s life, what their life might be like without that part of the Special Education Law. Identify the ethical issue and show its relationship to the case. It would be best if you were the narrator when writing about the child/student.

* Create your Case Study “child/student” on the first day of class. Throughout the chapter readings in each module, as the book proceeds, read the chapter and then write 2-3 pages of a Journal Entry for each of the chapters discussed in each module. Work on this Key Assessment every week to make the process easier and smoother, guaranteeing quality work.



Child: Ayden Miller is a smart, fun, and energetic six-year old. He was born and raised

in Ontario, Oregon. He enjoys spending time with his older sister, Ayla, and

brother, Azikio. Ayden also enjoys playing with his cars, dominoes, and blocks.

Before he started Kindergarten, he attended a local daycare. He is very excited to

be in Kindergarten and play on the big playground. Ayden is rarely sick and only

missed one day of school in the first three months.

Strengths: Ayden is optimistic, determined, and helpful.

Weaknesses: Ayden is starting to show some anxiety when it comes time for math. He is unable

to recognize the letter patterns or count.

Family: His mother works at the local floral shop and his father works at Albertson’s as an

assistant manager. Both parents graduated high school and his father received his

Associate’s Degree through Treasure Valley Community College. The father

speaks English and the mother is bi-lingual. All three children speak English as

their main language. With that being said, they are able to understand and speak

Spanish too. The whole family has been working on sign language as well.

Functioning: After the first trimester in Kindergarten, there were some concerns in regards to

Ayden’s development in mathematics. The parents and general education teacher

were able to hold a meeting to discuss his progress, strengths, and needs. The

parents would like to work on some skills at home as well as bump him to Tier II

to see if this will help him during the second trimester. If little-to-no gain is made,

the parents have expressed the desire to have Ayden evaluated for a learning





Evaluation: Despite having an additional twenty minutes of one-on-one intervention, Ayden

was unable to show growth in mathematics. The parents and teacher were

concerned that there may be something more serious going on and an initial

evaluation was able to be completed after the second trimester. While the results

are pending on the evaluation, Ayden was moved to Tier III. It was determined

that Ayden qualifies for an individualized education program under a Specific

Learning Disability – Mathematics (Dyscalculia).

Definition: “Specific Learning Disability means a disorder in one or more of the basic

psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken

or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak,

read, write, spell or do mathematical calculations.” (Oregon Administrative Role,

2013, 5).

Psychology Today (2020) states, “Dyscalculia is a childhood disorder that affects

the ability to learn arithmetic and mathematics in someone of normal intelligence,

as compared with those of the same age who are receiving identical

instruction…Dyscalculia may also be referred to as math learning disability,

acalculia, developmental dyscalculia, math anxiety, math dyslexia, or numerical


Causes: There have been numerous studies on Specific Learning Disabilities and

Dyscalculia, yet there is not one specific cause. Problems with the fetus, genes,

injury, poor nutrition, lead exposure, and other environmental factors could have

an impact on a child having a Specific Learning Disability. It is hard to determine

the exact history of specific learning disabilities, however, there are documents




that date back to 1877. (LD Online. 2006). Other resources show that specific

learning disabilities, in students, started to become more and more prevalent

shortly after World War II.

Prevalence: According to the Children’s Hospital (2020), “It is hard to know how many

children have a learning disability since the diagnostic criteria are so variable

from place to place. About 10% of students in the United States have been

classified at some time in their lives as having a learning disability.”

Diagnostician: Although a primary care physician can refer children and adults to a psychologist,

physiatrist, or a learning specialist to evaluate for a diagnosis, the school learning

specialist/special education professional can perform the duties of diagnosing a

child, if he or she has a diagnosis. If a child does have a Specific Learning

Disability, then there should be extra support and educational intervention

happening on a daily basis.

Intervention: Ayden will have a one-on-one aide during mathematics. He will also be pulled out

of class for twenty minutes for intervention. Manipulatives should be utilized

throughout the instruction time, especially items that he really enjoys (cars,

dominoes, and blocks). Sensory manipulatives should also be implemented (play

dough, sand, shaving cream). The family will be provided additional resources as

well as guaranteed an extended school year or summer school (whichever of their

choosing). Ayden is more likely to succeed in everyday tasks despite his





Technology: The use of Assistive Technologies is not necessary at this time. There are

opportunities for Ayden to explore numbers throughout the classroom, on

calculators, and on the Starfall and IXL websites which can be accessed weekly.

Chapter 1: The four sources of law which exist on federal and state levels include:

constitutional, statutory, regulatory, and case. (Yell 2012, 11). Without the

American legal system, we would not have the laws that we do today. Nor, could

we take matters to the courts if we thought that the laws were unjust. We, the

people of the United States, have opportunities to have a trial and to change

certain laws or create new ones in order to protect our rights as citizens of this

country. If matters are still not handled fairly or correctly at this level, then we

have the right to appeal. The appellate court will determine if the laws were

followed or if the rights of an individual were violated.

With the help from the 14th Amendment of the Constitution, individuals back in

the 1960’s rallied together due to the unfairness of the school system at the time.

In Mills v. Board of Education, many young children with disabilities were

excluded or even expelled from school without due process of law. Many doctors

wrote on the children’s behalf stating that school or specialized instruction would

be greatly beneficial for them, yet the children were still excluded from schools.

(Kids Together, Inc. 2009).

The same goes for Pennsylvania Association of Retarded Citizens (PARC) v.

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. It started with one little boy who was unable to

read due to a disability. Rather than the school accept the boy and provide him

with services and with an education, the school excluded him. Luckily, parents




stood together and fought for the rights of their children. These parents knew that

is was not right that their children were excluded or even expelled from school

because they had a disability. (Yell 2012, 11).

Looking back at Ayden and his family, they are protected under numerous laws

which include but is not limited to the Free Appropriate Public Education,

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, and Every Student Succeeds Act.

Without these laws intact, it would be very possible that schools would refuse to

accept him or provide the necessary resources/intervention that he requires. If he

was refused a free appropriate public education, like many children were back in

the 1960’s, his condition, unfortunately, would only worsen. This would create a

ripple effect and additional complications may start to arise, such as low self-

esteem, low self-worth, depression, antisocial behavior, etc.

Without the 14th Amendment of the Constitution and the dedication and

determination of the parents and children back in the 1960’s/1970’s, who knows

where America’s school system would be at today. It is hard to tell if children

with disabilities would have the rights that they should have and do have now.

With how the American legal system is today, schools are being held accountable

and are required to abide by various laws, rules, and regulations. “Children with

disabilities are first and foremost children. They will benefit from the same

experiences that are desirable for all children for the same reasons…Inclusion

provides opportunities for socialization and friendships to develop. It provides a

sense of belonging and appropriate modeling of social, behavioral, and academic

skills.” (Kids Together 2009).





Boston Children’s Hospital (2020). Symptoms and Causes for Learning Disorders and

Disabilities in Children. Retrieved from



Kids Together, Inc. (2009). Mills v. Board of Education. Retrieved from


LD Online (2006). Timeline of Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from


Oregon Administrative Rule (2013). Special Education Services in Ontario School District.

Retrieved from



Psychology Today (2020). Dyscalculia. Retrieved from


Yell, Mitchell (2012). The Law and Special Education, 5th Edition. Pearson Publishing.

Retrieved from https://reader.yuzu.com/#/books/9780135178324/cfi/1!/4/2@100:0.00

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