What is the relationship of theory to actual policy?

Minimum 7-8 Pages Excluding Reference Page and Title Page

1. Can you identify a particular IR theory that appeals to you as the better explanation of human behavior than others? Or would you say that the existence of multiple theories is an indication that perhaps all of them are plausible as possible interpretations of the same or different human events? Be clear and use examples to make your case.

2. What  is the relationship of theory to actual policy?  Are theories pre-packaged conceptual tools policy-makers then apply to the interpretation of actual events? Expressed differently, is there a 1/1      correspondence between a particular event and a theory that explains it? If so, how do we explain two ‘realist’ (or liberals or constructivists, etc.) policymakers who both call for completely opposite policies in the same  case, one opting for military intervention for example, while the other prefers a policy of restraint? What does this say about the relationship between theory and actual policy?

3. Consider the structure of the US government as reflected in the Constitution  (i.e. institutional checks and balances, power-sharing among federal and state authority, etc.) Does this structure reflect a realist, liberal, or some other theory of human behavior? In effect, is the ‘more perfect Union’ of 1787 infused with a more realist or more liberal spirit, or maybe a bit of both. Explain the possibilities concisely yet clearly with examples?

Essay 2 IR








International Relations Theory.

Name: Abdirahim M Muhumed

Professor: David Halt

Wed, Feb 17 2021









International relations theory’s relationship to actual policy

The hypothesis has a novel connection with international policy. To comprehend the International Relations hypothesis, you should take a glance at the memorable and logical ideas that establish the framework for strategy. These ideas are the political ways of thinking and social sciences. This paired methodology in taking a gander at the worldwide relations hypothesis gives a more prominent comprehension of what hypothesis means for strategy. The two ideas give understanding into humankind’s affiliation with government alongside examples of reasoning that clarify history through the viewpoint of prescient conduct. As indicated by the remarkable author Hans J. Morgenthau, the International Relations hypothesis depends on the political way of thinking (Cox, 1962). The political way of thinking includes both old-style and modern logical ideas. Our advanced type of government takes a weighty impact from Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Thomas Paine. These people established the framework for what is known as a political way of thinking. The way of thinking of worldwide relations accepts issues about profound quality, discretion, war, monetary government assistance, and common freedoms (Beitz, 1998). At an advanced look, allegiances among residents and ideas of patriotism and energy are better perceived. This idea thus impacts the real approach. The theory addresses male’s jobs and relationships with the state and overseeing specialists.

The auxiliary angle that can be useful to the international relations hypothesis is the science of behavior. Focused on the characteristic connection between science and human conduct, behaviorism created logical, quantitative strategies for examining political cycles (Hamati-Ataya, 2018) Behaviorism stretched how International Relations was deciphered by presenting a wide scope of hypotheses and techniques. Large numbers of these techniques were borrowed from social and pure sciences. Subsequently, researchers accepted that political marvels could be exposed to the strategies for science; behaviorists disposed of the regularizing tradition of the order and supplanted political way of thinking with the way of thinking of science (Hamati-Ataya, 2018). These activities set new guidelines for the detailing of ideas and hypotheses through the imbuement of the logical technique.

Taking a glance at the twofold parts of the hypothesis, it very well may be better perceived that the hypothesis is a memorable and logical examination that impacts how strategy is made and completed. Hypotheses are not really prepackaged arrangements that can be applied in entirety to human issues, yet they do give a brief look into potential responses, results, and results that accompany overseeing human issues. Ethical contemplations, decisions, understandings, and other logical and social angles all shape the center of the political hypothesis. The previously mentioned ideas are regularly liquid when applied to human issues; along these lines, one will encounter that smoothness while creating a worldwide approach. On occasion countries that take a political pragmatist position may later end up actualizing liberal strategies because of moving conditions. A new and longstanding model started in 2001 with the United States (US) attack on Afghanistan.

The US-drove besieging of Afghanistan started after the September 11 assaults on the United States. With the start of a profound traditionalist official organization, the US kept an international strategy doused in pragmatist hypothesis. Authenticity mirrors a view that the state acts in a unitary way in the quest for the public interest (Mingst, Karen A., and Ivan, 2017). Force at that point gets characterized through material assets to draw in and constrain different states. Pragmatists take two pathways of war and counterbalancing power. This is actually what the US did in Afghanistan. After entering the country, the US furnished and developed Anti-Taliban Northern Alliance powers. Inside the global-local area, at that point, President Bush kept an “us versus them,” international strategy with his popular Congressional discourse expressing, “You are either with us or with the fear-based oppressor.” (VOA News, 2009).

The U. S’s activities totally fit the depiction of a hostile pragmatist. Such pragmatist occasionally exhibits an ability to take part in the battle as a momentary venture to acquire profits in standing upgrade (Mingst, Karen A., and Ivan, 2017). Be that as it may, not long after Bush’s discourse, there was nothing present moment or notoriety upgrading about the Afghan attack. The U.S’s. workday from hostile authenticity would incorporate the difference in a Presidential organization and numerous wild occasions that tried the US crowded. In 16 years, Afghanistan saw two significant troop floods, the weariness of UN military sources, opium exploitative, political deaths, and withdrawal of US partners (BBC News, 2018). After such occasions, the mission looked useless and the U.S made a significant move in tone in regards to its endeavors in Afghanistan.

In 2012, NATO supports an arrangement to pull out battle troops in 2 years. In 2013, the Afghan Army took the order of the military and security tasks of the country. Afghanistan was in no condition for incomplete self-rule following the US attack; in any case, public and worldwide assessments of the war put the US in a trading-off position. A liberal methodology was immediately received. Progressivism flourishes with the possibility that the amiable attitude of individuals can improve moral conditions. War and shameful acts are viewed as side-effects of degenerate social organizations, and disasters are directed by change and aggregate activity (Mingst, Karen A., and Ivan, 2017). In this limit, the US attempted to create a majority rules system in Afghanistan, focused on unified relationships, and primary organizations to look after harmony.

Following 16 years of US-drove struggle, history is without a feeling of incongruity. After 3 US official organizations, and different ceasefires, political savagery actually seethes on in spite of both liberal and pragmatist political strategies. Such progress and uncertain issues exhibit that political strategies and the hypotheses that help them are not “all in one resource” arrangements that take care of worldwide issues. Policy-centered issues, hypotheses, and strategies are liquid and ought to be viewed all things considered, instead of absolutisms that drawn-out political endeavors depend on.

International Relations theory and the clarification of human behavior.

The existence of numerous International Relations hypotheses exhibits the smoothness that is regulating human conduct. Every hypothesis addresses a conceivable result in political dynamic. This contention can be additionally perceived by taking a gander at the philosophical and social science factors that the hypothesis depends on. The clarification of human conduct and its relationship to the state mechanical assembly has been an antiquated point. Numerous rationalists have attempted to limit the typical idea of humankind alongside building up predominant hypotheses that concur with human conduct. At the moment, researchers have examined and systematized human conduct, and the outcomes can be confusing.

Socrates and his sibling Glaucon examined the characteristic self-centeredness of man in Plato’s “Republic.” Glaucon demanded that individuals’ acceptable conduct just exists for personal responsibility. He further conjectured that individuals just make the best choice since they dread discipline. Whenever left unchecked, man would act only for himself and not give it a second thought in the event that he hurt anybody simultaneously (Pappas, 2017). The seventeenth Century scholar Thomas Hobbes accepted the common condition of man’s life was self-centered, fierce, and fleeting. Hobbes supported that man should go into common agreements and governance arrangements to forestall rough propensities (Pappas, 2017). A lot of what these logicians have expressed mirrors a piece of history that matches with man’s collaboration with one another on the worldwide battleground; in any case, there is another side to a political way of thinking that strengthens man’s liberal and charitable nature. For instance, John Locke believed that people were naturally open-minded creatures however holding the limit with respect to self-centeredness. The development of human culture has been fashioned in association and participation. From a philosophical stance, numerous political hypotheses are conceivable and mirror an assortment of human occasions. This is additionally strengthened by conduct researchers.

Notwithstanding long-existing instances of man’s self-centeredness and limit with regards to annihilation, the logical information shows the man is fit for exhibiting selflessness on an immense level. At present, anthropologists understand each human cohort at any point contemplated has been found to romanticize philanthropy and rebuff narrow-mindedness, in everything from their folklores to their mating rehearses (Szalavitz, 2012). The worldwide local area frequently meets up in fantastic manners following the misfortune. Around the world, the result of cataclysmic events is regularly portrayed by chivalry and sharing of assets. The worldwide and neighborhood local area cooperates to amend destructive issues. For instance, during the seismic tremor, wave, and atomic emergency in Japan in 2011, states, NGOs, and individual residents met up to help the influenced populace and the planetary climate (Szalavitz, 2012). In their entirety, liberal, pragmatist, and revolutionary hypotheses mirror the fluctuated condition of human philosophical and conduct personality that shapes worldwide legislative issues.


The structure of the United States government as reflected in the Constitution

The United States constitution contains an introduction, seven articles, and 27 revisions. The standards for the most part reflected in the constitution incorporate restricted government, federalism, division of forces into three parts of government, balanced governance, and individual rights. The public government is made out of three branches to be specific the authoritative branch additionally the Congress, the legal branch eluded to us the court framework, and the presidential branch which is the Presidency. The Congress is made out of two sections which are the House of Representatives and the Senate and the two of them get their forces from the specified forces in Article one Section eight of the constitution. The presidential branch then again comprises the president and the vice president, the president’s bureau, and other administrative organizations that uphold laws. Finally, the legal executive comprises a Supreme Court and state courts. The Supreme Court can figure out what government laws mean and can topple them in the event that they are illegal. Each state has its own high court, which deciphers that state’s constitution and laws.

The United States constitution is a report that was made with the philosophical and political contemplations of now is the right time, combined with social instances of man’s affiliation with the public authority. The fallout of dictator governments, liberal humanist idea, along noninterventionist need all assume a part in the making of the archive (Hasebe, 2003). The United States constitution jelly rights and foundations that are related to liberal social separation. For instance, an opportunity of religion, the press, and discourse are viewed as all-inclusive rights and vital for free human culture. Such purpose is expressly liberal and is the establishment of our free society.

From a pragmatist point of view, the United States constitution focuses on the idea of individual and state sway (Hasebe, 2003). United States power, from an outer perspective, mirrors the unitary and unobstructed quest for its own public advantages. The power of public interest can advance independence and noninterference from other overseeing elements. Such pragmatist sees harmonize with liberal ideas to make a liquid record. The United States Constitution secures the differed rights that are pretty much as liquid as the political hypotheses recently talked about. This factor may set up why social researchers believe the United States Constitution to be one of the best legislative archives within recent memory














BBC News. 2018. Afghanistan profile – Timeline. BBC News. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-south-asia-12024253

Beitz, C.(1998). International relations, philosophy of. In The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Taylor and Francis. Retrieved 8 Apr. 2018, from

https://www.rep.routledge.com/articles/thematic/international-relations-philosophy-of/v-1. doi:10.4324/9780415249126-S031-1

Cox, Richard. 1962. The Role of Political Philosophy in The Theory of International Relations. Social Research. Vol. 29, No. 3. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40969611

Hamati-Ataya, I. (2018-01-11). Behavioralism. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of International Studies. Retrieved 8 Apr. 2018, from http://internationalstudies.oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190846626.001.0001/acrefore-9780190846626-e-376.

Mingst, Karen A., and Ivan M. 2017.Essentials of International Relations. 7th ed. New York: W. W. Norton and Company

Pappas, Stephanie. 2017. Conflicts of Interest: Are Humans Inherently Selfish? Live Science. Retrieved from https://www.livescience.com/57991-conflicts-of-interest-science-humans-selfish-cooperation.html


Szalavitz, Maia. 2012. Is Human Nature Fundamentally Selfish or Altruistic? Time Magazine. Retrieved from http://healthland.time.com/2012/10/08/is-human-nature-fundamentally-selfish-or-altruistic/

VOA News. 2009. Bush: ‘You Are Either With Us, Or With the Terrorists’ – 2001-09-21. VOA News. Retrieved from https://www.voanews.com/a/a-13-a-2001-09-21-14-bush-66411197/549664.html

Hasebe, Yasuo. 2003. Constitutional Borrowing and Political Theory. Oxford University Press. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/icon/article-pdf/1/2/224/1833717/010224.pdf



"Looking for a Similar Assignment? Get Expert Help at an Amazing Discount!"