Global Issues: Politics, Economics, And Cultural By Richard Payne.

You will write a book review on Global Issues: Politics, Economics, and Cultural by Richard Payne. The purpose of this assignment is not only to summarize the themes found within the texts, but to offer a critique and identify how the material relates to current events and public policies.

Instructions

The Book Critique and Policy Review Paper Assignments must be 6 pages, not including the title and reference page. Format the body of your review in 4 main sections: summary, critique, application, and policy review. Do not summarize or critique the chapters chronologically. Consider the book as a whole. Avoid excessive quotations. State the authors’ viewpoints in your own words and give specific page references when paraphrasing. Be sure to review the Book Critique and Policy Review Paper Grading Rubric before starting this assignment. Each submission must be in a Microsoft Word document.

· Summary

Summarize the main theme of the book. What is the overall perspective, purpose, or argument of the book? If the author wanted you to get one idea from the book, what would it be?

· Critique

This section needs to balance the book’s strengths and weaknesses in order to unify your evaluation. What strikes you as noteworthy? What has the book accomplished? In what ways was the book effective or persuasive? Challenge assumptions, approaches, or arguments made by the author. Does the argument make sense? You can offer agreement or disagreement and identify where you find the work exemplary or deficient in its knowledge, judgments, or organization. Provide concrete evidence for your assertions. Support judgments with references from the textbook reading in this course and other scholarly resources. All citations must be in current Turabian. Be sure that your evaluation is balanced, respectful, and fair. Control the tone of your critique.

· Application

This section must demonstrate how the book has enhanced your understanding of current public policy issues. Why is this topic important today? How can this information be used in forming and maintaining a strong foreign policy?

· Policy Review

Identify and assess a current public policy issue in current events in light of the theories presented in this material. Do not merely state what the policy is. Explain the policy and provide a short but detailed briefing on the policy. Additionally, state if the policy is good or bad based on the perspective you gained in reading this book. You must also introduce new ideas that go beyond the book if they complement ideas you have gleaned from reading in the book.

Global Issues Politics, Economics, and Culture

Fifth Edition

Richard J. Payne Illinois State University

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Payne, Richard J., 1949- Title: Global issues : politics, economics, and culture / Richard J. Payne, Illinois State University. Description: Fifth edition. | Boston : Pearson, 2016. | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2015037527| ISBN 9780134202051 (alk. paper) | ISBN 0134202058 (alk. paper) Subjects: LCSH: Globalization—Textbooks. | World politics—Textbooks. Classification: LCC JZ1318 .P39 2015 | DDC 303.48/2—dc23 LC record available at http://lccn.loc.gov/2015037527

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

ISBN-10: 0-13-420205-8 ISBN-13: 978-0-13-420205-1

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To Elaine Cook Graybill and Alyson Sue McMillen

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Brief Contents

Preface ix

Maps xv

1 Global Issues: Challenges of Globalization 1

2 The Struggle for Primacy in a Global Society 15

3 Human Rights 26 4 Promoting Democracy 41 5 Global Terrorism 54 6 Weapons Proliferation 71 7 The Global Financial Crisis 83 8 Global Trade 94

9 Global Inequality and Poverty 111 10 Environmental Issues 128 11 Population and Migration 143 12 Global Crime 158 13 Global Health Challenges 173 14 Cultural Clashes and Conflict

Resolution 187

References 201

Glossary 205

Credits 214

Index 215

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Preface ix

Maps xv

1 Global Issues: Challenges of Globalization 1

1.1: From International Relations to Global Issues 2

1.2: Pluralism and Interdependence 3

1.3: The Growth of the Modern State 4

1.4: Sovereignty 4 1.4.1: The Decline of Sovereignty 5

1.5: The European Union: Redefining Sovereignty 6

1.6: The Rise of Nonstate Actors 6 1.6.1: The Catholic Church 7 1.6.2: Transnational Corporations 7

1.7: Interdependence and Globalization 7

1.8: Causes of Globalization 7

1.9: Forms of Globalization 9 1.9.1: Economic Globalization 9 1.9.2: Financial Globalization 9 1.9.3: Political Globalization 10 1.9.4: Military Globalization 10 1.9.5: Cultural Globalization 10 1.9.6: Environmental Globalization 11 1.9.7: Criminal Globalization 11

1.10: Periods of Globalization 11

1.11: Resistance to Globalization 12

1.12: Debating Globalization 12

CASE STUDY Challenges Facing the Catholic Church 13

Summary  14 • Discussion Questions  14

2 The Struggle for Primacy in a Global Society 15

2.1: Power and Leadership 16

2.2: The Rise and Fall of Great Powers 17

2.3: Strategies for Maintaining Power 17 2.3.1: America’s Rise to Dominance 18

2.4: Challenging American Hegemony 19 2.4.1: China 19

2.5: Threats to U.S. Power: Emerging Powers and Nonstate Actors 22

2.5.1: Domestic Threats to American Hegemony 23 2.5.2: Will the United States Remain the Dominant Power? 23

CASE STUDY Challenges Facing China 24

Summary  25 • Discussion Questions  25

3 Human Rights 26 3.1: Globalization and Human Rights 27

3.1.1: Nongovernmental Organizations and Human Rights 27 3.1.2: Global Companies and Human Rights 28

3.2: Development of Human Rights 28 3.2.1: Social Contract Theories and Human Rights 28 3.2.2: Utilitarianism, Libertarianism, and Marxism 29 3.2.3: Legal Positivism and Human Rights 29 3.2.4: Globalization of Human Rights: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights 29

3.3: Philosophical Controversies Over Human Rights 30 3.3.1: Universalism Versus Cultural Relativism 30 3.3.2: Individuals and Communities 30 3.3.3: Relationship Between Rights and Obligations 31 3.3.4: Prioritizing Human Rights 31 3.3.5: Absolutism Versus Consequentialism 31

3.4: Human Rights Regimes 31

3.5: Enforcing Human Rights Globally 32 3.5.1: Sanctions 32 3.5.2: Humanitarian Intervention: Responsibility to Protect 33 3.5.3: Responding to Genocide 33 3.5.4: The International Criminal Court 34

3.6: Women and Human Rights 35 3.6.1: Sexual Violence: Rape as a Weapon of War 36

3.7: People with Disabilities and Human Rights 37

3.8: Islam and Human Rights 37

3.9: Fighting Terrorism and Protecting Human Rights 38

3.10: The Death Penalty and Human Rights 38

CASE STUDY Homosexuals and Human Rights 39

Summary  40 • Discussion Questions  40

4 Promoting Democracy 41 4.1: Democracy 42

4.1.1: Political Participation and Democracy 43 4.1.2: Women’s Political Participation and Democracy 43 4.1.3: Factors Conducive to Democracy 44 4.1.4: Promoting Democracy 45 4.1.5: Global Civil Society and the Promotion of Democracy 45 4.1.6: The Promotion of Democracy by the United States 46 4.1.7: Imposing Democracy by Force in Iraq 46

4.2: Transitions to Democracy 47 4.2.1: Latin America 48 4.2.2: Russia 49

Contents

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4.2.3: Myanmar 50 4.2.4: Islam and Democracy in the Middle East 50

4.3: Global Governance and Democracy 51 4.3.1: International Regimes 51 4.3.2: Making Global Institutions More Democratic 51

CASE STUDY Democratic Transitions in the Middle East and North Africa 52

Summary  53 • Discussion Questions  53

5 Global Terrorism 54 5.1: Defining Terrorism 55

5.2: Factors Conducive to Terrorism 56

5.3: Goals, Strategies, and Weapons of Terrorism 57

5.4: Financing Terrorism 57

5.5: The Costs of Terrorism 58 5.5.1: Costs to Individuals 58 5.5.2: Economic Costs 58 5.5.3: Costs to Governments 58 5.5.4: Foreign Policy Costs 59 5.5.5: Costs to Democracy 59

5.6: Kinds of Terrorism 59 5.6.1: Domestic Terrorism 60 5.6.2: Nationalist Terrorism 61 5.6.3: Religious Terrorism 64 5.6.4: State Terrorism 65 5.6.5: Global Terrorism 65 5.6.6: Lone Wolf Terrorism 66

5.7: Responding to Terrorism 67

5.8: Fighting Terrorism and Protecting Democracy 68

CASE STUDY Terrorism in Pakistan 68

Summary  69 • Discussion Questions  70

6 Weapons Proliferation 71 6.1: The Proliferation of Weapons 72

6.1.1: Reasons for the Proliferation of Weapons 72 6.1.2: The Proliferation of Small Arms 73

6.2: The Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons 74 6.2.1: China and Japan 75 6.2.2: India and Pakistan 75 6.2.3: The Middle East 76 6.2.4: North Korea 77

6.3: America’s Nuclear Response to Nuclear Proliferation 77

6.4: Chemical and Biological Weapons 78

6.5: Drones and Cyberweapons 79

6.6: Nonproliferation Regimes 79 6.6.1: Nuclear Nonproliferation 80 6.6.2: Curbing Chemical and Biological Weapons 81

CASE STUDY Countries That Abandoned Nuclear Weapons Programs 81

Summary  82 • Discussion Questions  82

7 The Global Financial Crisis 83 7.1: Causes of the Global Financial Crisis 84

7.1.1: Deregulation of Financial Markets 85 7.1.2: Financial Innovations 85 7.1.3: Executive Compensation 86 7.1.4: Low Interest Rates 86 7.1.5: Subprime Loans 87 7.1.6: Speculation 87

7.2: The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis 88 7.2.1: Foreclosures 88 7.2.2: Decline in Manufacturing and Trade 89 7.2.3: High Youth Unemployment 89 7.2.4: Global Power Shift 89

7.3: Global Responses to the Financial Crisis 90 7.3.1: America’s Response 90 7.3.2: European Responses 90 7.3.3: China’s Response 91 7.3.4: Financial Regulations 91 7.3.5: Austerity Policies 92

CASE STUDY Ireland: The Decline of the Celtic Tiger 92

Summary  93 • Discussion Questions  93

8 Global Trade 94 8.1: The Globalization of Free Trade 95

8.1.1: Exchange Rates, Budget Deficits, and Trade 98 8.1.2: Barriers to Free Trade 99 8.1.3: Do Trade Deficits Matter? 99

8.2: Global Companies and Global Factories 99 8.2.1: Insourcing 100 8.2.2: Safety at Global Factories 100

8.3: Global Trade and Low Wages 101 8.3.1: Sweatshops and Child Labor 102

8.4: Global Companies Promote Equality 102

8.5: Labor Unions and Global Trade 102

8.6: Global Trade Disputes 103 8.6.1: Tariffs 103 8.6.2: Quotas 104 8.6.3: Subsidies 104 8.6.4: Genetically Modified Food 105

8.7: Global Trade and the Environment 106 8.7.1: Diseases and Global Trade 106

8.8: Regional Trade Blocs 107 8.8.1: The European Union 107 8.8.2: The North American Free Trade Agreement 107 8.8.3: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations 108 8.8.4: The South American Common Market 108

CASE STUDY Global Food Safety 109

Summary  110 • Discussion Questions  110

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Contents vii

9 Global Inequality and Poverty 111 9.1: Does Inequality Matter? 112

9.2: The Globalization and Inequality Debate 113 9.2.1: Globalists Make Their Case 113 9.2.2: Antiglobalists Make Their Case 114

9.3: Global Inequality 115 9.3.1: Inequality Between Developed and Developing Countries 115 9.3.2: Causes of Inequality Between Rich and Poor Countries 116

9.4: Inequality Within Rich Countries 118 9.4.1: The United States 118 9.4.2: Causes of Inequality in America 119 9.4.3: Other Industrialized Countries 120

9.5: Inequality Within Poor Countries 120 9.5.1: Gender Inequality 122

9.6: Global Poverty 123 9.6.1: Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction 124

9.7: Closing the Gap 124

CASE STUDY Food Security and Rising Food Prices 126

Summary  127 • Discussion Questions  127

10 Environmental Issues 128 10.1: The Globalization of Environmental Problems 129

10.1.1: Nongovernmental Organizations and the Environment 130 10.1.2: Women and the Environment 130 10.1.3: Indigenous Peoples and the Environment 131 10.1.4: Strategies Used by Nongovernmental Organizations 131

10.2: Biodiversity 132 10.2.1: Endangered Species and Wildlife Protection 132

10.3: Deforestation 134 10.3.1: Causes of Deforestation 134 10.3.2: Efforts to Prevent Deforestation 135 10.3.3: Ocean Resources—Fishing 135

10.4: Ocean Pollution 136

10.5: Global Warming and Climate Change 137

10.6: Water Scarcity 140

CASE STUDY The Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan 141

Summary  142 • Discussion Questions  142

11 Population and Migration 143 11.1: Population 144

11.1.1: Population Issues in Developing Countries 144 11.1.2: Population Issues in Developed Countries 145

11.2: Global Migration 146 11.2.1: Gender and Migration 147 11.2.2: Types of Migration 147 11.2.3: Causes of Migration 148

11.3: Push Factors 148 11.3.1: Refugees 149

11.4: Pull Factors 150

11.5: Case Studies 152 11.5.1: The United States 152 11.5.2: Western Europe 153 11.5.3: Australia 154

11.6: Social, Economic, and Political Implications of Migration 155

11.6.1: The Impact of Migration on Sending Countries 155 11.6.2: The Impact of Migration on Receiving Countries 156

CASE STUDY Global Aging and Pensions 156

Summary  157 • Discussion Questions  157

12 Global Crime 158 12.1: The Globalization of Crime 159

12.2: The Global Drug Problem 159 12.2.1: Efforts to Control the Drug Problem 161

12.3: Sexual Crimes 163

12.4: Global Smuggling of Migrants 164

12.5: Contemporary Slavery and Human Trafficking 165

12.6: Criminal Gangs and Kidnapping 166

12.7: Illegal Trade in Endangered Animals and Plants 167

12.8: Cybercrimes and Piracy 169 12.8.1: Piracy at Sea 169

12.9: Global Responses to Crime 170

CASE STUDY Government Corruption in India 171

Summary  172 • Discussion Questions  172

13 Global Health Challenges 173 13.1: Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs) 174

13.1.1: The Impact of NCDs 174 13.1.2: Causes of NCDs 175 13.1.3: Major NCDs 176 13.1.4: Global Responses to NCDs 176

13.2: Globalization of Infectious Diseases 177 13.2.1: Global Travel and Communications 178

13.3: Human Security and Infectious Diseases 178

13.4: Infectious Diseases 178

13.5: Influenza and Avian Flu 180

13.6: Malaria 180

13.7: HIV/AIDS 181 13.7.1: Global Responses to AIDS 182

13.8: SARS 183

13.9: EBOLA 184

13.10: Global Responses to Infectious Diseases 184

CASE STUDY Obesity: A Global Epidemic 185

Summary  185 • Discussion Questions  186

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14 Cultural Clashes and Conflict Resolution 187

14.1: Cultural Influences on Conflicts 188

14.2: Clashing Civilizations 188 14.2.1: The West and the Muslim World 189 14.2.2: The United States and Islam 189

14.3: Clashes Among Nations 190

14.4: Ethnic Conflicts 191 14.4.1: Ethnicity and Ethnic Identity 192 14.4.2: The Causes of Ethnic Conflict 192 14.4.3: Ethnic Clashes 193

14.5: Religious Violence 196

14.6: Resolving Cultural Conflicts 197 14.6.1: Negotiation 197

14.6.2: Peacekeeping and Humanitarian Intervention 198 14.6.3: Peacemaking 198 14.6.4: Peacebuilding 198

CASE STUDY War in Afghanistan 199

Summary  200 • Discussion Questions  200

References 201

Glossary 205

Credits 214

Index 215

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Preface

T he global financial crisis weakened the momentum toward greater globalization. Most countries con- tinue to want the benefits of globalization while

simultaneously enacting policies to diminish the costs of globalization. This has led to the emergence of a new form of globalization, gated globalization, which is character- ized by more state intervention in the flow of money and goods, increased regionalization of trade, and a deeper emphasis on narrow national interests than on global co- operation. At the same time, the globalization of problems continues to erode the ability of individual governments to effectively address their citizens’ concerns, which, in turn, weakens bonds between individuals and states. This trend is reinforced by global migration and the declining significance of citizenship. Furthermore, global inequality is reducing support for globalization. These developments are underscored by growing nationalism and religious and ethnic identity, especially in Western Europe, the Middle East, Africa, eastern Ukraine, and Russia.

Global inequality is now a leading global issue. The richest 0.5 percent of the world’s population owns roughly one-third of the wealth. The globalized high-tech econ- omy, which gives an unprecedented financial advantage to highly educated and technologically innovative people, widened the gap between the global elite and the middle class. It also undermined the strong belief in the Ameri- can dream of upward mobility. The failure of many gov- ernments to effectively address inequality and high youth unemployment has triggered massive protests globally, a development aided by widespread access to communica- tions technologies, especially social media.

Edward Snowden’s decision to leak massive amounts of information from the National Security Agency about America’s spying on its citizens, citizens of other coun- tries, governments and their leaders, and international organizations presented unprecedented consequences for U.S. national security and foreign policy and the rela- tionship between American government and Americans. Their trust in their government has been undermined. Close American allies such as Germany and Brazil ex- pressed strong opposition to the monitoring of their lead- ers’ personal phone calls. Responding to negative global reaction, leading technology firms such as Microsoft and Google stated that the American government in its quest for absolute security had endangered individual privacy.

Social media and big data have emerged as potent forces that are diminishing the significance of national borders and profoundly influencing global politics,

economics, and culture. Social media provide a global forum for mass participation, the exchange of ideas, the instant dissemination of information, and individuals to organize globally. Social media enhance the power of the global middle class, thereby promoting democracy and challenging the power of traditional institutions and ideas. Global communications technologies also facilitate the growth and severity of cybercrimes and underscore the need for greater global cybersecurity for governments, nonstate actors, and individuals.

Global food safety is an extremely important is- sue. Global companies process and market food grown in many different countries. It is difficult for consumers to determine where food comes from. The emergence of China as a major food exporter is heightening concerns about food safety. Apart from the impact of excessive lev- els of pollution on crops, China has a notorious reputa- tion for deliberately contaminating and adulterating food. Middle-class consumers globally are concerned about genetically modified crops and are attempting to have foods containing them labeled. Eliminating drug-resis- tant bacteria and limiting the use of antibiotics on farms and curbing their use in medicine are priorities of the U.S. government. Companies such as McDonald’s, Costco, and Wholesale Corp. are reducing the use of meat from ani- mals that are raised on antibiotics.

The brutal gang rape and murder of an Indian college student shocked the global community and underscored the prevalence of sexual violence against women. It also served as a catalyst for mobilizing global support to re- duce sexual crimes. These efforts are reinforced by global concerns about female genital mutilation and the growing awareness in America of sexual assaults on college and university campuses and in the military. The proliferation of cybercrimes demonstrates our vulnerability to destruc- tive forces largely beyond the individual ’s control. The general global consensus that current approaches to the global drug problem are counterproductive and harmful is lessening global support for them. There is increasing support for decriminalizing and legalizing marijuana. Several states in America decriminalized or legalized the sale and use of marijuana, and Uruguay became the first country to legalize the production, sale, and consumption of marijuana.

Concerns about global warming are reinforced by the frequency of destructive storms such as Hurricane Sandy in New York and Typhoon Haiyan in the Philip- pines; droughts, forest fires, hotter weather, and floods

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globally; melting ice in the Arctic and Antarctica; and rising sea levels, especially in the Pacific Ocean. Coral reefs around the world, from the Great Barrier Reef of Australia to Caribbean reefs, are dying, due partly to rising sea temperatures linked to global warming. How- ever, global preoccupation with economic problems re- duces efforts to deal with the effects of climate change. On the other hand, technological breakthroughs such as fracking in the gas industry have dramatically in- creased gas supplies in the United States. Lower costs are influencing power plants to switch from coal to gas, thereby reducing carbon emissions that contribute to global warming.

Democratic transitions in most countries in the Middle East and North Africa degenerated into vio- lence, instability, and deteriorating economic condi- tions. These fueled a massive refugee crisis in Syria. Myanmar ’s peaceful transition to democracy, directed by the military government, is a major development in Southeast Asia and globally. Similarly, Tunisia and Ni- geria’s peaceful transfer of power strengthened demo- cratic transitions in those countries. The normalization of relations between the United States and Cuba also offers hope for democracy in Cuba.

Massive flows of refugees not seen since World War II are creating a major global issue. This prob- lem is aided by human trafficking. Italy and Malta are experiencing unprecedented economic, political, and social pressures from migrants from the Middle East and Africa, most of whom are fleeing conflicts in Syria and Libya that emanate from failed transitions to democracy. Many are also economic migrants from stable democracies such as Senegal and Ghana trying to find better lives in Europe, especially in Germany and Sweden. A humanitarian crisis has been caused by the overcrowding of vessels leaving Libya to cross the Mediterranean. Large numbers of migrants drowned. This wave of migration has created serious challenges for the European Union.

The escalation and effectiveness of drone strikes by the United States have weakened organized terrorist groups such as al-Qaeda. But terrorism remains a potent global threat. Wars in Syria and Iraq have ignited sectarian violence and spawned the emergence of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), which is now the major global terrorist threat. The failure of the democratic transition in Libya and widespread lawlessness there facilitated an in- creased flow of arms to militant Islamic groups in Africa, making it a new front of terrorism. There are also rising threats from lone wolf terrorists, demonstrated by attacks in Boston, London, Sydney, Ottawa, and Paris.

Religious violence is increasing. The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan deepened sectarian hostilities among Muslims. Sunnis and Shiites who lived relatively

peacefully together prior to the American invasion and occupation of Iraq are now engaged in unprecedented bloodshed. More radical majority Sunni Muslims in Paki- stan routinely attack the minority Shiites. The dominant Han Chinese violently suppress the minority Muslim Uighurs in Western China. Muslims attack Christians in northern Nigeria, and Christians attack Muslims in the Central African Republic. Buddhists persecute Muslims in Myanmar, and Hindus use violence against Muslims in India.

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are a leading global issue. NCDs cause roughly 80 percent of deaths in low- and middle-income countries and two thirds of deaths globally. These diseases include obesity, heart disease, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer ’s disease, and hypertension. Global aging, poverty, smoking, drug abuse, harmful use of alcohol, sedentary lifestyles, a growing global middle class, and cultural globalization contribute to the growth of NCDs. The globalization of fast food and sugary drinks contributes to the global obesity epidemic which, in turn, causes other diseases. A growing concern is the increasing resistance of su- perbugs to antibiotics used to treat diseases. The Ebola epidemic in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone refo- cused attention on the global security threats of infec- tious diseases and the need for robust global responses to eliminate them.

The global financial crisis weakened Europe’s econ- omy and contributed to an erosion of public confidence in political leaders to solve economic and social prob- lems. Even as further European integration is essential to strengthen the European Union (EU) and the euro zone, regions of several countries are advocating for indepen- dence. Richer northern European countries resist spend- ing more money on weaker southern countries such as Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Public support for the Euro- pean Union has declined, and many governments favor limiting the free movement of people, which is a funda- mental principle of the European Union.

States, the foundation of international relations, emerged relatively recently from fundamental tech- nological, religious, economic, political, and cultural changes. The forces of globalization are now pro- foundly altering international relations, weakening the virtual monopoly of power enjoyed by states, strengthening nonstate actors and intergovernmental organizations, and eroding all forms of hierarchical organizations. Revolutions in technology, especially in communications, directly challenge traditional ap- proaches to international politics.

Globalization intertwines the fates of states, intergov- ernmental organizations, nonstate actors, and individu- als to an unprecedented degree. Wars, which have been a primary concern for states and traditionally the focus of

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Preface xi

international relations, also have changed. Globalization has made traditional warfare less likely and unconven- tional wars more prevalent. America’s longest war is not with another state but is instead against nonstate actors, especially al-Qaeda and the Taliban. The proliferation of drones and the use of cyberweapons present serious chal- lenges to global security. These developments have the potential to engender a new arms race and increase inter- national conflicts.

My decision to write this textbook was strongly in- fluenced by the need for a comprehensive, accessible, and student-oriented introductory textbook for undergrad- uates that focuses specifically on global issues. This text concentrates on global issues that students around the world are passionate about because they are directly re- lated to the forces of globalization that are integral com- ponents of their lives. The issues discussed in this book are both primary global concerns and those in which stu- dents have shown great interest. This book’s pedagogical features are based on classroom experiences that demon- strate how to help students understand complex concepts, develop critical-thinking skills, and engage in problem solving.

New to This Edition All chapters have been substantially revised and updated to reflect current developments. Each chapter concludes with a detailed case study on a current global issue. New and updated topics include child labor, sweatshops, fe- male genital mutilation, Cuba, Iran’s nuclear agreement, lone wolf terrorism, ISIS, cybersecurity, Nigeria’s election, sexual assaults on campus and in the military, noncom- municable diseases, and Ebola. Included are updated tables and case studies on democratic transitions in the Middle East and North Africa, global food safety, the war in Afghanistan, government corruption in India, food se- curity and the global food crisis, the obesity epidemic, the impact of the global financial crisis on Ireland, and the earthquake and tsunami in Japan.

Additional features of each new chapter include the following:

• Chapter 1, “Challenges of Globalization”: Gated globalization; the European Union; multinational corporations and tax avoidance; the impact of social media on global affairs; challenges facing the Catholic Church

• Chapter 2, “The Struggle for Primacy in a Global Society”: Challenges facing China; domestic chal- lenges to America’s global power, including growing inequality

• Chapter 3, “Human Rights”: The global response to the treatment of civilians in the Syrian civil war;

human rights of women, people with disabilities, and homosexuals

• Chapter 4, “Promoting Democracy”: Transitions to democracy in Cuba, Myanmar, the Middle East, and North Africa; the power of social media to inspire young people to protest for change; women’s grow- ing participation in democracy

• Chapter 5, “Global Terrorism”: Counterterrorism, including the use of drones; lone wolf terrorism; do- mestic terrorist groups such as Boko Haram; religious terrorism; Africa as a new front in global terrorism; terrorism in Pakistan

• Chapter 6, “Weapons Proliferation”: Proliferation of nuclear weapons; drones and cyberweapons; chemi- cal and biological weapons

• Chapter 7, “The Global Financial Crisis”: Continuing fallout from the crisis and the global response; global high youth unemployment; global power shifts, in- cluding BRICS; effects of austerity policies

• Chapter 8, “Global Trade”: Global trade and curren- cies; insourcing; safety at global factories; trade blocs; genetically modified food

• Chapter 9, “Global Inequality and Poverty”: Growing economic inequality as a dominant global issue and a fuel for terrorism; inequality as a weakening force of American power; globalization as a cause of inequal- ity; food security; economic development and pov- erty reduction

• Chapter 10, “Environmental Issues”: Indigenous peoples and the environment; new efforts to prevent deforestation; ocean pollution; global warming and climate change; water scarcity

• Chapter 11, “Population and Migration”: Population issues in developing and developed countries; new wave of migrants from the Middle East and North Africa; effects of immigration on Western Europe; Australia’s approach to asylum-seeking people in boats; global aging

• Chapter 12, “Global Crime”: The globalization of crime, including drugs, sexual crimes, smuggling of migrants, contemporary slavery, and human traffick- ing; cybercrime; government corruption

• Chapter 13, “Global Health Challenges”: The sharp rise in noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and the global response; fighting malaria; global responses to HIV/AIDS; the Ebola epidemic; Alzheimer ’s disease; the global epidemic of obesity

• Chapter 14, “Cultural Clashes and Conflict Resolution”: Clashes among nations; ethnic conflict; rising anti- Semitism in Europe; religious violence, including ISIS; attempts to resolve conflict; war in Afghanistan

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Features Global Issues: Politics, Economics, and Culture is based on ten philosophical components that are interwoven into each chapter and throughout this book to provide stu- dents with:

1. A clearer understanding of how the powerful forces of economic, financial, cultural, political, environ- mental, and military globalization are affecting gov- ernments, nonstate actors, and individuals

2. A deeper awareness of the growing inability of gov- ernments, nonstate actors, and individuals to neatly compartmentalize problems within countries outside broader global developments

3. An appreciation for the complexities of global prob- lems and their interdependence

4. A broader sense of the global issues and problems in developing countries

5. A historical background to many global issues that enables students to see continuity and change in hu- man experiences

6. A deeper awareness of how globalization is pro- foundly challenging the state-centric emphasis that dominates international relations and world politics

7. A foundation for more advanced courses on global- ization and global affairs

8. An understanding of basic concepts and theories and an ability to evaluate and apply them to real-life events and problems

9. An ability to think critically, develop independent judgment, and sharpen intellectual curiosity and imagination

10. A recognition of the power of individuals, includ- ing students, to have a positive impact on global problems

The text is composed of fourteen chapters, each focus- ing on a specific topic and related subtopics. The global issues covered in this book are widely regarded to be of critical importance by both the global community and instructors. In addition to providing instructors with the flexibility to stimulate student participation, the range of issues allows sufficient time during a semester to cover each chapter and to incorporate various pedagogical ap- proaches. Instructors will have enough time to review for exams, administer at least three exams, and allow stu- dents to present research papers and other projects. This book can be easily supplemented with subscriptions to publications such as the New York Times, the Washington Post, the Wall Street Journal, the Economist, or Foreign Af- fairs, enabling students to obtain more current examples of the global issues discussed in these pages.

As a comprehensive introduction to global issues for students from different academic disciplines, Global

Issues is written in a style that makes information very accessible. A more conversational writing style engages students, encourages them to relate what they read to global developments and their own lives, facilitates the development of analytical skills, and makes it easier for them to engage in discussions. Above all, it attempts to present a clear, straightforward discussion of interest- ing and important global issues without obscuring their complexity.

• Chapter introductions The introduction provides a brief overview of the main points in the chapter, tells students what is covered, and provides examples of controversial issues included in the chapter to stimu- late students’ interest in the material.

• Current examples Consistent with the decision to adopt an accessible writing style, I have included many brief and current examples of global issues throughout the book. These examples make global is- sues more immediately relevant for students and en- courage them to develop a concrete understanding of specific problems.

• Historical background Each chapter provides practical historical background information to g i v e s t u d e n t s a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i s s u e ’ s broader context.

• Cros s -referenc ed is s ues Ch a p t e r s are cross- referenced to help students see the interrelatedness and interdependence of global issues. For example, by reading Chapter 10, “Environmental Issues,” students will explore the impact of economic global- ization on the environment and culture as well as the relationships among environmental issues, global and domestic inequality, economic development, migration, cultural conflicts, and the spread of infectious diseases.

• Maps and photographs Maps help put issues in context and enable students to better grasp essential points discussed in the text. Carefully selected pho- tographs portray specific developments and capture students’ attention.

• Tables Tables throughout the book help students understand important points discussed in the text.

• Boldfaced key terms and definitions These are designed to draw students’ attention to definitions, concepts, key terms, and main points. Stressing their importance reinforces the point that they are the building blocks of the chapter.

• End-of-chapter summaries These provide a brief review of the chapter. They focus students’ attention on major points and help them improve their compre- hension and retention of the information.

xii Preface

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Preface xiii

• End-of-chapter questions These questions are designed to improve students’ retention of information, stimulate discussions in study groups, and help stu- dents prepare for exams.

• Index This listing allows students to quickly find key terms, concepts, names, and subjects discussed throughout the text. Many students find the index es- pecially helpful when reviewing for exams.

Available Instructor Resources A Test Bank comprising of additional questions in multi- ple choice, true/false, and open-ended—short and essay response—formats are available for instructors. These can be downloaded at http://www.pearsonhighered.com/ irc. Login required.

Acknowledgments I am deeply indebted to many students who made signifi- cant contributions to this collaborative and interdisciplinary project. Feedback from students in my Global Issues courses over the years has been invaluable and has contributed to making the book accessible to other students. I am also in- debted to many research assistants, especially Yu Bo, Lara Saba, Brian Zednick, Janet Schultz, Natalie Mullen, Anthony DiMaggio, Nadejda Negroustoueva, Lindsay Barber, Meaghan Gass, Jake Owen, and Vanda Rajcan.

I am grateful to many colleagues who read the manu- script, made useful suggestions, and shared their insights. I would like to thank Michele Ganschow, Jamal Nassar, and Cherie Valentine of the Department of Politics and Government at Illinois State University; Laura Berk of the Department of Psychology at Illinois State University;

Kelly Keogh of Normal Community High School; Carole J. Cosimano of the Illinois Humanities Council; Michael Edward Allison of the University of Scranton; Mikhail Alex- seev of San Diego State University; Lindsey Back of Morehead State University; Eric Budd of Fitchburg State College; Brad T. Clark and M. Dawn King of Colorado State University; Mark E. Denham and Richard F. Weisfelder of the University of Toledo; Erich Frankland of Casper College; Mark Haas of Duquesne University; Barbara Hufker of Webster University; Sabrina Jordan of Bethune-Cookman University; Robert King of Georgia Perimeter College; Mark Martinez of California State University at Bakersfield; Daniel McIntosh of Slippery Rock University; Anjana Mishra of Florida International Uni- versity; Luis Antonio Payan of the University of Texas at El Paso; George Quester of the University of Maryland; Timothy Russell of the University of Memphis; Houman Sadri of the University of Central Florida; Tom Schrand of Philadelphia University; Mark Schroeder of the University of Kentucky; Boyka Stefanova of University of Texas–Austin; Bill Sutton of Southern Maine Community College; Marjorie K. Nanian of Schoolcraft College; and Thomas J. Volgy of the University of Arizona.

I would also like to thank Michele Ganschow and Kay Stultz of Illinois State University for their invaluable assistance. In addition I want to thank Vikram Mukhija at Pearson, as well as the other staff of Pearson and Lumina Datamatics, Inc. who lent their great expertise to this edition. Above all, I am especially indebted to Jason C.F. Payne for helping me with the chapter on the global financial crisis, and to Elaine Cook Graybill for her sup- port and insights during the writing of this book and for her ongoing research assistance and editorial oversight.

Richard J. Payne

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