Presidential Advisor

You are an advisor to the President tasked with cutting at least $300 billion from the budget. The president wants your recommendations to cut lines, not large categories. Explain why you chose those cuts.

Note: These are not true US budget numbers.



DOMESTIC PROGRAMS AND FOREIGN AID Cut some foreign aid to African countries  $17 billion
Eliminate farm subsidies  $14 billion
Cut pay of civilian federal workers by 5 percent  $14 billion
Reduce the overall federal workforce by 10%  $12 billion
Cut aid to states by 5%  $29 billion
MILITARY Cut the number of nuclear warheads, and end the “Star Wars” missile defense program  $19 billion
Reduce military to pre-Iraq War size and further reduce troops in Asia and Europe  $25 billion
Cancel or delay some weapons programs  $19 billion
HEALTHCARE Enact medical malpractice reform by reducing the chances of large malpractice verdicts  $ 8 billion
Increase the Medicare eligibility age to 68  $ 8 billion
Raise the Social Security retirement age to 68.  $ 13 billion
EXISTING TAXES Return the estate tax to Clinton-era levels, passing on an estate worth more than $1 million to their heirs would have portions of those estates taxed.  $ 50 billion
End tax cuts for income above $250,000 a year  $ 54 billion
End tax cuts for income below $250,000 a year  $ 172 billion
Payroll tax increase for people making over $106,000 annually contributing more to Social Security and Medicare.  $ 50 billion
NEW TAXES Institute a Millionaire’s tax on income above $1 million  $ 50 billion
Add a national 5% sales tax  $ 41 billion
Add a tax on carbon emissions  $ 40 billion
Tax banks based on their sizes and the amount of risk they take.  $ 73 billion
Total gap covered by your budget plan   $_________________




Use evidence (2 cite sources) APA and textbook cite to support your response from assigned readings or online lessons, and at least 2 outside scholarly source.

Textbook cite is ——

Magstadt, T. M. (2017). Understanding Politics: Ideas, Institutions, and Issues(12th ed.). [Bookshelf Version]. Retrieved from

Note: Advice to the president should be written with each paragraph explaining, DOMESTIC PROGRAMS AND FOREIGN AID, MILITARY, HEALTH CARE, EXISTING TAXES AND NEW TAXES

2 pages paper








Summary of chapter 13

Public policy issues attempt to satisfy five basic goals: security, prosperity, equality, liberty, and justice. Security is the most fundamental goal of government, because a country cannot pursue or preserve other values without it. In pursuing security, government attempts to protect citizens from foreign enemies, from fellow citizens, from natural enemies, and, in some instances, from themselves.

In the United States, the goal of prosperity has historically been associated with a free-enterprise economy based on the idea of the commercial republic. In the twentieth century, however, the government has attempted to promote the economic well-being of individuals through social welfare and other programs. These programs have sparked heated debate over the proper role of government in economic matters, especially as the budget deficit has increased. Problems in the educational system endanger U.S. competitiveness in the international economy. Income distribution also made for a lively topic of national debate in recent years and became a front-burner issue after the Wall Street meltdown in the fall of 2008. The election of Barack Obama and the economic recession have made extravagant executive bonuses and income disparities front-page news.

The goal of equality in the United States has been closely identified with the effort to end racial discrimination. Two landmark Supreme Court cases in the post–Civil War period helped perpetuate state laws and public attitudes upholding established patterns of racial inequality. Later, Brown v. Board of Education (1954) spearheaded the civil rights movement, which culminated in legislative, judicial, and administrative measures aimed at bringing about genuine racial equality. These civil rights gains were followed by new controversies over mandatory school busing to achieve racial integration and affirmative action guidelines designed to rectify past inequalities. Other major public policy issues related to equality have addressed the rights of various ethnic groups, women, and the poor and disadvantaged.

The pursuit of liberty is a core value of U.S. society. Among the personal liberties protected explicitly by the First Amendment are freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and freedom of religion. The right to privacy, or freedom of choice, is another significant aspect of personal liberty in the United States.

We can narrowly define the pursuit of justice as the government’s attempt to ensure fair and impartial treatment under the law. In the United States, the criminal justice system strives to uphold a commitment to due process, or fair procedure. The controversial exclusionary rule attempts to balance the defendant’s right to due process against society’s right to be protected against criminals. Debates about judicial discretion and capital punishment also attempt to balance defendants’ and society’s rights.

Conflicts among these five goals prevent any one of them from being fully realized. A moderate, well-informed, and fair-minded citizenry is thus essential to sound public policy and a sustainable democratic order.

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