Fake News United States VS Ukraine

I need 20 page paper on Fake News United States VS Ukraine Includes:

Annotated Bibliography This is a compiled collection of possible sources for your work, complete with notes on each work and its relevance to your project.

Research Paper: Full paper explains how fake news affects people’s perception below is the research question

Research Question:

Given the fact that the Russian government have spread lies and propaganda across news outlets and social media, how does fake news affect public perception in Ukraine and the United States?

I have in the document a short outline and resources use it and add on for meet the 20 PAGE requirement. Be ORIGINAL AND DO NOT PLAGIARIZE. Use Minmum of 15 scholarly sources only and trusted research magazines like the Economist or NYT or WSJ Or WP. add on the sources listed in the paper use graphs and pictures when necessary.

Double spaced 12 pt Times New Roman

· Introduction


Fake news has been circulating for a long time in news outlets and recently it has been pumped into the public eye like never before. Major news channels have broadcasted false stories about almost anything from war crimes and corruption to celebrity scandals to shape the public view, spread fear and cause mayhem. I want to research fake news because their spread has made us more ignorant, sew divide between us and have spread hate among us.

Research Question:

Given the fact that the Russian government have spread lies and propaganda across news outlets and social media, how does fake news affect public perception in Ukraine and the United States?

Choosing to compare Ukraine and the US was logical since both countries have been affected by Fake News whether it’s a civil war in Ukraine or the election of Donald Trump in the United States. In this paper I will talk about what can be considered Fake News or Disinformation, how it spreads, what is the motivations behind them, who believes them and how it affects public perception.

Hypothesis 1: If Individuals believe a story is ideologically slanted in to affirm their believe, they will also perceive stories from that same outlet to be ideological slanted in the same direction.

Hypothesis 2: Individuals with less that college education will be more likely to believe fake news stories.

· Definition

· The pace of life in the 21st Century has created “infostorms” that overwhelm our senses


“Fake news are false news stories, often of a sensational nature, created to be widely shared or distributed for the purpose of generating revenue, or promoting or discrediting a public figure, political movement, company, etc…” dictionary.com

There are 7 types of misinformation that can be called “Fake News”:

1. Satire or Parody: No intention to cause harm like The Onion, Saturday Night Live or The Moon Hoax.

2. Misleading Content: misleading use of information to frame an issue or an individual.

3. Imposter Content: when genuine sources are impersonated.

4. Fabricated Content: New content that is completely false, designed to deceive and cause harm.

5. False Connection: When headlines, visuals or captions don’t support content.

6. False Context: when genuine content is shared with false contextual information.

7. Manipulated Content: when genuine information or imagery is manipulated to deceive.





· History

In 1835 the New York Sun published a series of articles about what’s on the moon, they wrote, there were batmen, goat-like creatures with blue skin; a temple made of polished sapphire. These were the astonishing sights witnessed by John Herschel, who was an eminent British astronomer, when he pointed his telescope towards the Moon from an observatory in South Africa. These articles caused a stir, The newspaper more than doubled it’s sales to become the world’s bestselling daily newspaper. Except that these articles were a complete hoax meant for satire but the audience failed to recognize it as such and it caused confusion among people. Later the paper retracted it.


· How It spreads?

· Ukraine

Russian News Media to influence the Russian speaking population which consequently lead to a civil war between the Ukrainian government and separatists backed by Russia.

· US

· Social Media

So much of disinformation is passed around on Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr and other social media outlets, this epidemic became more prominent since 2015 and the US election of 2016. People shared the news mostly unknowingly that they are fake and false. Computer bots were also used to spread disinformation about both political parties and were aiming to help DJT win and they were controlled by domestic and foreign actors like Russia.

· News Channels

Some News Channels like FOX NEWS has contributed to spreading confusion across the US and according to politifact.com %79 of the statements made on FOX are Half-truths, mostly false or outright just false.

· political pundits

A pundit is a person who offers to mass media their opinion or commentary on a particular subject area. These people go on CNN, FOX and others to spread disinformation to cause mayhem for different reasons including money, political agenda and creating stir and confusing the public.

· government officials

From the president and his supporters in congress and the white house staff, they create and disseminate Fake News.

· Who’s behind it?

· Political Leaders

· Activist groups

· “Journalists”

· Forging actors

· Russia

· The Public

· Political fanatics

· Who believes them?

· Ukraine

· Eastern Side of Russian speaking population.


· US

· Democrats.

· Republicans.

· Independents.

· Effects On people

· Public perception

· Ukraine

· Led to War

· The Impact of War

The annexation of Crimea and the war in Ukraine’s eastern territories have had a devastating impact on economic and political life in Ukraine. According to UNICEF, 10,000 people had been killed and 1.5 million displaced by 2017.


· US

· Led to DJT

· Partisanship

· Confusion.


· Conclusion


















· References

· Mitchell, Amy, Jeffrey Gottfried, Galen Stocking, Mason Walker, and Sophia Fedeli. “Many Americans Say Made-Up News Is a Critical Problem That Needs To Be Fixed.” Pew Research Center’s Journalism Project, September 18, 2019. https://www.journalism.org/2019/06/05/many-americans-say-made-up-news-is-a-critical-problem-that-needs-to-be-fixed/.

· Chatfield, Tom. “Why We Believe Fake News.” BBC Future. BBC, September 9, 2019. https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20190905-how-our-brains-get-overloaded-by-the-21st-century.

· Harper, Craig A., and Thom Baguley. 2019. ““you Are Fake News”: Ideological (a)symmetries in Perceptions of Media Legitimacy” PsyArXiv. January 23. doi:10.31234/osf.io/ym6t5.

· Allcott, Hunt, Gentzkow, and Matthew. “Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 Election.” Journal of Economic Perspectives. Accessed November 26, 2019. https://www.aeaweb.org/articles?id=10.1257/jep.31.2.211.

· Claire Wardle, and Hossein Derakhshan . “INFORMATION DISORDER: Toward an Interdisciplinary Framework for Research and Policy Making.” First Draft News, September 27, 2017. https://firstdraftnews.org/.

· Asmolov, Gregory. “THE DISCONNECTIVE POWER OF DISINFORMATION CAMPAIGNS.” Journal of International Affairs71, no. 1.5 (2018): 69-76. www.jstor.org/stable/26508120.

· Levitin, Daniel. Weaponized Lies: How to Think Critically in the Post-Truth Era. Lieu de publication inconnu: Penguin Books, 2017.

· Barthel, Michael, Amy Mitchell, and Jesse Holcomb. “Many Americans Believe Fake News Is Sowing Confusion.” Pew Research Center’s Journalism Project, September 18, 2019. https://www.journalism.org/2016/12/15/many-americans-believe-fake-news-is-sowing-confusion/.

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