Opioid Epidemic Problem Definition

10-Item Bibliography

1. Bowen, Elizabeth A., and Andrew Irish. “A Policy Mapping Analysis of Goals, Target Populations, and Punitive Notions in the U.S. Congressional Response to the Opioid Epidemic.” International Journal of Drug Policy, vol. 74, Dec. 2019, pp. 90–97. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.09.014.

a. Provides in-depth analysis of the United States Congressional response to the opioid epidemic. Through a policy mapping content analysis of all opioid-related bills and resolutions the authors determine how effective the United States legislative response from 2009-2017 has been.

2. Jones, Greg H., et al. “The Opioid Epidemic in the United States-Overview, Origins, and Potential Solutions.” Cancer (0008543X), vol. 124, no. 22, Nov. 2018, pp. 4279–4286. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1002/cncr.31713.

a. Article further discusses the origins of the opioid epidemic, how opioid use came about, its consequences on population health, and society’s response. Jones also provides solutions centered around new pain management practices.

3. Lombardi, Brianna M., et al. “The Role of Social Work in the Opioid Epidemic: Office-Based Opioid Treatment Programs.” Social Work in Health Care, vol. 58, no. 3, Mar. 2019, pp. 339–344. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/00981389.2018.1564109..

a. This article clarifies the roles of social workers within the treatment and combating of the opioid epidemic. After explaining the roles, the article calls for an expansion of educating social workers and implementing them more in primary care.

4. PURCELL, MICHAEL J. “Settling High: A Common Law Public Nuisance Response to the Opioid Epidemic.” Columbia Journal of Law & Social Problems, vol. 52, no. 1, Fall 2018, pp. 135–177. EBSCOhost, search-ebscohost-com.ezproxy.shc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=snh&AN=132765006 &site=ehost-live.

a. Explores attorney generals battling the opioid epidemic through legal action against major pharmaceutical manufacturers and distributors. This article is important to my research because it shows another method government officials use to combat the epidemic.

5. Schin, Alexander, and Halla Bates. “Policy Shift in the Opioid EPIDEMIC: An Update on the X-Waiver.” EMRA, 8 Feb. 2021, www.emra.org/emresident/article/x-waiver-update/.

i. Reveals most recent changes to X-Waiver and treatment of opioid addiction under the Biden Administration.



6. Theisen, Katherine, et al. “The United States Opioid Epidemic: A Review of the Surgeon’s Contribution to It and Health Policy Initiatives.” BJU International, vol. 122, no. 5, Nov. 2018, pp. 754–759. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1111/bju.14446.

a. This article gives explanation to the effects of surgeons overprescribing opioids in the United States. The article will help with my understanding of how postoperative overprescribing can lead patients to opioid addiction.

7. Trump, Donald J. “Proclamation 9787–Prescription Opioid and Heroin Epidemic Awareness Week, 2018.” Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents, Sept. 2018, pp. 1–2. EBSCOhost, search-ebscohost-com.ezproxy.shc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=131876557 &site=ehost-live.

a. President Trump’s Proclamation 9787 is useful to my research because it demonstrates the past administrations’ attitudes towards the opioid epidemic.

8. Vincenzes, Kristin A., et al. “Systemic Issues in the Opioid Epidemic: Supporting the Individual, Family, and Community.” International Journal of Mental Health & Addiction, vol. 17, no. 5, Oct. 2019, pp. 1214–1228. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1007/s11469-018-0041-3.

a. Provides experiences of individuals who recovered from opioid addiction or lost loved ones to opioid overdoses. This article helps give account of the implications these individuals face within the systems approach to prevention and intervention

9. Volinn, Ernest, and John D. Loeser. “Upsurges in the Joblessness and Opioid Epidemics in the United States after the COVID-19 Epidemic: The Plight of the Jobless Patient in the Clinic.” PAIN, vol. 162, no. 6, June 2021, pp. 1608–1611. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1097/j.pain.0000000000002253.

a. Volinn and Loeser’s article illustrates the connections between the three epidemics the United States is currently facing: joblessness, COVID-19, and the opioid epidemic. It provides great references to the effects of the COVID-19 epidemic. The authors analyze how these large scale epidemics cause society to respond.

10. Weimer, Melissa B., et al. “Removing One Barrier to Opioid Use Disorder Treatment: Is It Enough?” JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 325, no. 12, Mar. 2021, pp. 1147–1148. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1001/jama.2021.0958.

a. Article gives review of updates to X-Waiver policy. Provides a prediction of how effective new provisions to the policy will be in the treatment of opioid addiction.

These articles helped me to understand more about the origins of the Opioid epidemic. In

order to comprehend how critical the epidemic is to the public health of the United States, I

focused on articles discussing past/current policies on opioids, the epidemics connection to



COVID-19 and joblessness, different routes taken by public officials to combat the epidemic,

and issues those recovering from addiction face.The use of controlled substances continues to be

a problem within the healthcare industries. One of my most important findings is how critical a

role surgeons play in the introduction of opioid addictions. The prescription opioid epidemic

contradicts traditional assumptions of drug use being a problem with illicit drugs. One article I

found goes into great detail of how a person’s brain can develop opioid use disorder and I plan to

use this information to help support the epidemic’s connection to joblessness.

Another important thing I learned from this research is the X-Waiver policy and its

implications on recovery treatment. One of my articles discusses predictions of how beneficial it

will be to remove this policy. I hope to find more articles pertaining to other policies,like the

X-Waiver policy, and whether they are effective or not. Bowen and Irish’s article illustrates an

idea of how well congressional policies from 2009-2017 have performed in response to the

opioid epidemic. Through this article I have been able to discover which policies have proved to

be effective. I expect this article to assist me in discovering a solution.

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