Assignment: Qualitative And Observational Studies

Review the scenario discussed in chapter 8 (in “business research method.pdf“), discussion question 8 (on the final pages of the chapter). Then, in no more than one page(double space), answer the following questions:

  • 8a: What other information might you find useful to observe?
  • 8b: How would you decide what information to collect?
  • 8c: Devise the operational definitions you would need.
  • 8d: What would you say in your instructions to the observers you plan to use?
  • Additional question: List any potential ethical issues in the conduct and execution of your research and propose how to address them.

    The Twelfth Edition of Business Research Methods reflects a thoughtful revision of a market standard. Students and professors will find thorough, current coverage of all business research topics presented with a balance of theory and practical application. Authors Donald Cooper and Pamela Schindler use managerial decision-making as the theme of Business Research Methods and they provide the content and structure to ensure students’ grasp of the business research function. This textbook also encourages and supports the completion of an in-depth business research project, if desired, by the professor.

    Features of the Twelfth Edition include: The MindWriter continuing case study has been updated to focus on online survey methodology with Appendix A including a newly redesigned MindWriter CompleteCare online survey.

    New and revised Snapshots and PicProfiles provide 82 timely mini-cases presented from a researcher’s perspective, with additional mini-cases added to the accompanying instructor’s manual.

    New and revised Closeups offer in-depth examination of key examples.

    All new From the Headlines discussion questions.

    The Cases section contains the abstract for the new case: Marcus Thomas LLC Tests Hypothesis for Troy-Bilt Creative Development, and an updated case-by-chapter suggested-use chart.

    Some textbook content has been moved to the Online Learning Center, and includes the Multivariate Analysis chapter, and several end-of-chapter appendices.

    For more information, and to learn more about the teaching and study resources available to you, visit the Online Learning Center:

    CourseSmart enables access to a printable e-book from any computer that has Internet service without plug-ins or special

    software. With CourseSmart, students can highlight text, take and organize notes, and share those notes with other CourseSmart users. Curious? Go to to try one chapter of the e-book, free of charge, before purchase.




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    #1221015 12/17/12 C Y

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    The McGraw-Hill/Irwin Series in Operations and Decision Sciences


    Benton Purchasing and Supply Chain Management Second Edition

    Burt, Petcavage, and Pinkerton Supply Management Eighth Edition

    Bowersox, Closs, Cooper, and Bowersox Supply Chain Logistics Management Fourth Edition

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    Simchi-Levi, Kaminsky, and Simchi-Levi Designing and Managing the Supply Chain: Concepts, Strategies, Case Studies Third Edition


    Brown and Hyer Managing Projects: A Team-Based Approach First Edition

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    Jacobs, Berry, Whybark, and Vollmann Manufacturing Planning & Control for Supply Chain Management Sixth Edition


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    Kutner, Nachtsheim, and Neter Applied Linear Regression Models Fourth Edition


    Sterman Business Dynamics: Systems Thinking and Modeling for a Complex World First Edition


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    Schroeder, Goldstein, and Rungtusanatham Operations Management in the Supply Chain: Decisions and Cases Sixth Edition

    Stevenson Operations Management Eleventh Edition

    Swink, Melnyk, Cooper, and Hartley Managing Operations across the Supply Chain First Edition


    Ulrich and Eppinger Product Design and Development Fifth Edition


    Slater and Wittry Practical Business Math Procedures Eleventh Edition

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    Bowerman, O’Connell, Murphree, and Orris Essentials of Business Statistics Fourth Edition

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    coo21507_fm_i-xxvi.indd iicoo21507_fm_i-xxvi.indd ii 24/01/13 11:41 PM24/01/13 11:41 PM




    Donald R. Cooper Florida Atlantic University

    Pamela S. Schindler Wittenberg University


    coo21507_fm_i-xxvi.indd iiicoo21507_fm_i-xxvi.indd iii 24/01/13 11:41 PM24/01/13 11:41 PM




    Published by McGraw-Hill/Irwin, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY, 10020. Copyright © 2014 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2011, 2008, and 2006. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.

    Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States.

    This book is printed on acid-free paper.

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 DOW/DOW 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

    ISBN 978-0-07-352150-3 MHID 0-07-352150-7

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    All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page.

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Cooper, Donald R. Business research methods / Donald R. Cooper, Florida Atlantic University, Pamela S. Schindler, Wittenberg University.—Twelfth edition.

    pages cm.—(The McGraw-Hill/Irwin series in operations and decision sciences business statistics) ISBN 978-0-07-352150-3 (alk. paper) 1. Industrial management—Research. I. Schindler, Pamela S. II. Title. HD30.4.E47 2014 658.0072—dc23


    The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill, and McGraw-Hill does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.

    coo21507_fm_i-xxvi.indd ivcoo21507_fm_i-xxvi.indd iv 24/01/13 11:41 PM24/01/13 11:41 PM



    To Kelli Cooper, my wife, for her love and support.

    Donald R. Cooper

    To my soulmate and husband, Bill, for his unwavering support and sage advice.

    Pamela S. Schindler

    coo21507_fm_i-xxvi.indd vcoo21507_fm_i-xxvi.indd v 24/01/13 11:41 PM24/01/13 11:41 PM




    walkthrough Bringing Research to Life reveals research in the trenches. Much of research activity isn’t obvious or visible. These opening vignettes are designed to take the student

    behind the door marked RESEARCH. Through the activities of the principals at Henry & Associates, students

    learn about research projects, many that were revealed to the authors off the record . The characters and names

    of companies are fi ctional, but the research activities they describe are real–and happening behind the scenes in

    hundreds of fi rms every day.

    Learning Objectives serve as memory flags. Learning objectives serve as a road map as stu dents

    start their journey into the chapter. Read fi rst, these

    objectives subconsciously encourage students to

    seek relevant material, defi nitions, and exhibits.

    Jason Henry and Sara Arens, partners in Henry & Associates, are just wrapping up a Web- based briefi ng on the MindWriter project. Jason and Sara are in Boca Raton, Florida. Myra Wines, MindWriter’s director of consumer affairs is participating from Atlanta, as are others, including Jean-Claude Malraison, MindWriter’s general manager, who joined from Delhi, India, and Gracie Uhura, MindWriter’s marketing manager, and her staff, who joined from a conference room in their Austin, Texas, facility.


    “Based on the poll results that are on your screen, you

    have reached a strong consensus on your fi rst priority.

    The research strongly supports that you should be

    negotiating stronger courier contracts to address the

    in-transit damage issues. Congratulations,” concluded


    “That wraps up our briefi ng, today. Sara and I are

    happy to respond to any e-mail questions any of you

    might have after reading the summary report that has

    been delivered to your e-mail. Our e-mail address is on

    screen, and it is also on the cover of the report. Myra,

    I’m handing control of the meeting back to you.”

    As Myra started to conclude the meeting, Sara was

    holding up a sign in front of Jason that read. “Turn off

    your microphone.” Jason gave a thumbs-up sign and

    clicked off his mic.

    “Thank you, Jason,” stated Myra. “The research

    has clarifi ed some critical issues for us and you have

    helped us focus on some probable solutions. This

    concludes the meeting. I’ll be following up soon with

    an e-mail that contains a link to the recorded archive

    of this presentation, allowing you to share it with your

    staff. You will also be asked to participate in a brief

    survey when you close the Web-presentation window.

    I’d really appreciate your taking the three minutes it

    will take to complete the survey. Thank you all for


    As soon as the audience audio was disconnected,

    Myra indicated, “That went well, Jason. The use of

    the Q&A tool to obtain their pre-report ideas for action

    was a stroke of genius. When you posted the results as

    a poll and had them indicate their fi rst priority, they

    were all over the board. It helped them understand that

    one purpose of the research and today’s meeting was to

    bring them all together.”

    “Sara gets the credit for that stroke of genius,”

    claimed Jason after removing his microphone and

    clicking on his speakerphone. “She is a strong

    proponent of interaction in our briefi ngs. And she

    continually invents new ways to get people involved

    and keep them engaged.”

    “Kudos, Sara,” exclaimed Myra. “Who gets the

    credit for simplifying the monthly comparison chart?”

    “Those honors actually go to our intern, Sammye

    Grayson,” shared Sara. “I told her while it was a

    suitable graph for the written report; it was much too

    complex a visual for the presentation. She did a great

    job. I’ll pass on your praise.”

    “Well,” asked Myra, “where do we go from here?”

    “Jason and I will fi eld any questions for the next

    week from you or your staff,” explained Sara. “Then

    we will consider this project complete—until you

    contact us again.”

    “About that,” Myra paused, “I’ve just received an

    e-mail from Jean-Claude. He wants to meet with you

    both about a new project he has in mind. He asks if he

    could pick you up at the Boca airport on Friday, about

    2:30 p.m. He says his fl ying offi ce will have you back

    in time for an early dinner.”

    Sara consulted her iPhone and indicated she was

    available. Jason looked at his own calendar and smiled

    across the desk at Sara. “Tell Jean-Claude we’ll meet

    him at the airport. Any idea what this new project is


    “Not a clue!”


    After reading this chapter, you should understand . . .


    1 What issues are covered in research ethics.

    2 The goal of “no harm” for all research activities and what constitutes “no harm” for participant, researcher, and research sponsor.

    3 The differing ethical dilemmas and responsibilities of researchers, sponsors, and research assistants.

    4 The role of ethical codes of conduct in professional associations.

    Ethics in Business Research

    >chapter 2

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    Special tools for today’s visual learner. A transformation is taking place in many of our classrooms. During the last decade, more and more of our

    students have become visual—not verbal—learners. Verbal learners learn primarily from reading text. Visual

    learners need pictures, diagrams, and graphs to clarify and reinforce what the text relates.

    Integrated research process exhibits reveal a rich and complex process in an understandable way.

    Every textbook has exhibits. We use these tables and line

    drawings to bring key concepts to life and make complex

    concepts more understandable.

    Within our array of exhibits is a very special series of

    32 fully integrated research process exhibits. Each

    exhibit in this series shares symbols, shapes, and colors

    with others in the series.

    Exhibit 1-3 is the overview exhibit of the research

    process, to which all other exhibits related to the process

    will link.

    Research Proposal

    Discover the Management Dilemma

    Define the Management Question

    Define the Research Question(s)

    Refine the Research Question(s)

    (type, purpose, time frame, scope, environment)

    Research Reporting


    Data Analysis & Interpretation

    Research Design Strategy

    Clarifying the Research Question

    Management Decision

    Data Collection & Preparation

    Data Collection Design

    Sampling Design

    Instrument Development & Pilot Testing

    Chapters 2–5

    Chapters 6–14

    Chapter 15

    Chapters 16–18

    Chapters 19–20

    Appendix A

    >Exhibit 1-4 The Research Process

    Subsequent exhibits (like this one for survey design)

    show more detail in a part of this process.

    Another exhibit in the series might layer the main process

    exhibit with additional information (like this exhibit from

    the ethics chapter).

    >Exhibit 13-5 Flowchart for Instrument Design: Phase 2

    Pretest Individual Questions

    Measurement Questions

    Interview Conditions

    Interview Location

    Interviewer ID

    Participant ID





    Topic D

    Topic C

    Topic B

    Topic A

    Administrative Questions

    Target Questions

    Classification Questions

    Instrument Development

    • Sponsor’s right to quality research • Sponsor’s right of purpose nondisclosure • Researcher’s right to absence of sponsor coercion • Researcher’s right to absence of sponsor deception

    • Sponsor’s right to quality research

    • Participant’s right of informed consent • Participant’s right to privacy (refusal) • Sponsor’s right to quality research • Researcher’s right to absence of sponsor coercion

    • Participant’s right to privacy • Participant deception • Sponsor’s right to sponsor nondisclosure • Researcher’s right to safety

    • Sponsor’s right to findings nondisclosure • Participant’s right to confidentiality • Sponsor’s right to quality research • Researcher’s right to absence of sponsor coercion

    • Participant deception • Sponsor’s right to quality research

    • Sponsor nondisclosure

    Research Proposal

    Discover the Management Dilemma

    Define the Management Question

    Define the Research Question(s)

    Refine the Research Question(s)

    (type, purpose, time frame, scope, environment)

    Research Reporting


    Data Analysis & Interpretation

    Research Design Strategy

    Management Decision

    Data Collection & Preparation

    Data Collection Design

    Sampling Design

    Instrument Development

    Clarifying the Research Question

    >Exhibit 2-1 Ethical Issues and the Research Process

    coo21507_fm_i-xxvi.indd viicoo21507_fm_i-xxvi.indd vii 24/01/13 11:41 PM24/01/13 11:41 PM



    Some topics deserve more attention—with their own chapter!

    An emphasis on presentation. Increasingly, researchers are making oral presentations of

    their fi ndings though Web-driven technologies. We address

    this and other oral presentation formats and issues with a

    separate chapter.

    All researchers increasingly need qualitative skills. Researchers increasingly admit that quantitative research

    can’t reveal all they need to know to make smart business

    decisions. We capture the best of the current qualitative

    methods and reveal where and how they are used.

    Help in moving from management dilemma to research design. This is where talented people can steer research in the

    wrong or right direction. We devote a chapter to

    providing students with a methodology for making the

    right decisions more often.

    Ethical issues get the attention they deserve. Ethical issues abound in business research but may

    go unnoticed by students who need a framework to

    discuss and understand these issues. We devote a

    chapter to building that framework.

    Presenting Insights and Findings: Oral Presentations

    1 How the oral research presentation differs from and is similar to traditional public speaking.

    2 Why historical rhetorical theory has practical infl uence on business presentation skills in the 21st century.

    3 How to plan for the research presentation.

    4 The frameworks and patterns of organizing a presentation.

    5 The uses and differences between the types of materials designed to support your points.

    6 How profi ciency in research presentations requires designing good visuals and knowing how to use them effectively.

    7 The importance of delivery to getting and holding the audience’s attention.

    8 Why practice is an essential ingredient to success and how to do it; and, what needs to be assembled and checked to be certain that arrangements for the occasion and venue are ready.

    After reading this chapter, you should understand . . .


    >chapter 20

    Listeners have one chance to hear your talk and can’t “re-read” when they get confused. In many situations, they have or will hear several talks on the same day. Being clear is particularly important if the audience can’t ask questions during the talk.

    Mark D. Hill,

    professor of computer sciences and electrical and computer engineering,

    University of Wisconsin-Madison

    After reading this chapter, you should understand . . .


    1 How qualitative methods differ from quantitative methods.

    2 The controversy surrounding qualitative research.

    3 The types of decisions that use qualitative methods.

    4 The variety of qualitative research methods.

    Sometimes people are layered. There’s something totally different underneath than what’s on the surface . . . like pie.

    Joss Whedon, author and screenwriter

    “ ”

    Qualitative Research

    >chapter 7

    It is critical to use serious business judgment about what types of information could possibly be useful and actionable for an organization. We have seen enormous resources expended on “data projects” that have no realistic chance of payoff. Indiscriminately boiling a data ocean seldom produces a breakthrough nugget.

    Blaise Heltai, general partner,

    NewVantage Partners

    After reading this chapter, you should understand . . .

    > learningobjectives

    1 The purposes and process of exploratory research.

    2 Two types and three levels of management decision-related secondary sources.

    3 Five types of external information and the fi ve critical factors for evaluating the value of a source and its content.

    4 The process of using exploratory research to understand the management dilemma and work through the stages of analysis necessary to formulate the research question (and, ultimately, investigative questions and measurement questions).

    5 What is involved in internal data mining and how internal data-mining techniques differ from literature searches.

    Clarifying the Research Question through Secondary Data and Exploration

    >chapter 5

    After reading this chapter, you should understand . . .


    1 What issues are covered in research ethics.

    2 The goal of “no harm” for all research activities and what constitutes “no harm” for participant, researcher, and research sponsor.

    3 The differing ethical dilemmas and responsibilities of researchers, sponsors, and research assistants.

    4 The role of ethical codes of conduct in professional associations.

    Ethics in Business Research

    >chapter 2

    “Today, it would be remiss to say that the privacy profession is anything but fl ourishing. Companies are increasingly hiring privacy offi cers and even elevating them to C-suite positions; the European Commission has proposed a statute in its amended data protection framework that would require data protection offi cers at certain organizations, and at the International Association of Privacy Professionals (IAPP) membership recently hit 10,000 worldwide .

    Angelique Carson, CIPP/US,

    International Association of Privacy Professionals ”

    coo21507_fm_i-xxvi.indd viiicoo21507_fm_i-xxvi.indd viii 24/01/13 11:41 PM24/01/13 11:41 PM



    Students learn by and deserve the best examples.

    Snapshots are research examples from the researcher’s perspective. Snapshots are like mini-cases: They help a

    student understand a concept in the text by

    giving a current example. As mini-cases

    they are perfect for lively class discussion.

    Each one focuses on a particular application of

    the research process as it applies to a particular

    fi rm and project. You’ll fi nd more than

    82 of these timely research examples

    throughout the text and more in the Instructor’s


    Web addresses speed secondary data searches

    on companies involved with the example. be asked of participants. Four questions, covering numerous issues, guide the instrument designer in selecting appropriate question content:

    • Should this question be asked (does it match the study objective)?

    • Is the question of proper scope and coverage?

    • Can the participant adequately answer this question as asked?

    • Will the participant willingly answer this question as asked?

    The Challenges and Solutions to Mobile Questionnaire Design


    “As researchers, we need to be sensitive to the unique chal-

    lenges respondents face when completing surveys on mo-

    bile devices,” shared Kristin Luck, CEO of Decipher. “Small

    screens, infl exible device-specifi c user input methods, and

    potentially slow data transfer speeds all combine to make

    the survey completion process more diffi cult than on a typi-

    cal computer. Couple those hindrances with reduced atten-

    tion spans and a lower frustration threshold and it’s clear that,

    as researchers, we must be proactive in the design of both

    the questionnaire and user-interface in order to accommodate

    mobile respondents and provide them with an excellent survey


    Decipher researchers follow key guidelines when designing

    surveys for mobile devices like smart phones and tablets.

    • Ask 10 or fewer questions

    • Minimize page refreshes—longer wait times reduce


    • Ask few questions per page—many mobile devices

    have limited memory.

    • Use simple question modes—to minimize scrolling

    • Keep question and answer text short—due to smaller


    • If unavoidable, limit scrolling to one dimension (vertical

    is better than horizontal).

    • Use single-response or multiple-response radio button

    or checkbox questions rather than multidimension grid


    • Limit open-end questions—to minimize typing.

    • Keep answer options to a short list.

    • For necessary longer answer-list options, use drop-

    down box (but limit these as they require more clicks to


    • Minimize all non-essential content

    • If used, limit logos to the fi rst or last survey page.

    • Limit privacy policy to fi rst or last survey page.



    10 of 24


    • Debate use of progress bar—it may encourage

    completion but also may require scrolling.

    • Minimize distraction

    • Use simple, high-contrast color schemes—phones

    have limited color palettes.

    • Minimize JavaScript due to bandwidth concerns.

    • Eliminate Flash on surveys—due to incompatibility with


    Luck is passionate about making sure that researchers recog-

    nize the special requirements of designing for mobile as mobile

    surveys grow in use and projected use, S shares her expertise at

    conferences worldwide.

    Icons help students link parts of a richer, more complex example, told over a series of chapters.

    Some examples are so rich in detail that one Snapshot or exhibit just isn’t suffi cient. MindWriter is a

    computer laptop manufacturer that prides itself on customer service, especially when it comes to laptop

    repair at its CompleteCare center. Each time you see this icon in the text, you’ll be learning more about the

    customer satisfaction research that Henry & Associates is doing.


    coo21507_fm_i-xxvi.indd ixcoo21507_fm_i-xxvi.indd ix 24/01/13 11:41 PM24/01/13 11:41 PM



    The Closeup offers a more in-depth examination of a key example. Sometimes you just need more time and space to showcase all the detail of an example. This glimpse

    of the Closeup from Chapter 16 reveals two pages from a discussion on tabular data.

    Using Tables to Understand Data


    Because the researcher’s primary job is to discover the mes-

    sage revealed by the data, he or she needs every tool to reveal

    the message. Authors Sally Bigwood and Melissa Spore in their

    book Presenting Numbers, Tables, and Charts suggest that the

    table is the ultimate tool for extracting knowledge from data.

    The presence of any number within a table is for comparison

    with a similar number—from last year, from another candidate,

    from another machine, against a goal, and so forth. Using the

    author’s rules for table creation, a researcher exploring data by

    constructing a table should:

    • Round numbers. • Rounded numbers can be most easily compared, enabling us to more easily determine the ratio or relationship of one number to another.

    • If precision is critical to the number (e.g., you are researching taxes or design specifi cations or drug interactions), don’t round the numbers.

    • Arrange the num- bers to reveal patterns.

    • Order numbers from largest to smallest number. • In a vertically arranged table, order the largest number at the top. • In a horizontal arrangement, order the largest numbers on the left.

    • When looking for changes over time, order the numbers by year, from most distant (left or top) to most recent.

    • Use aver- ages, totals, or percentages to achieve focus.

    • An average provides a point for comparison. • Don’t use an average if the raw data reveal a bimodal distribution.

    • Totals emphasize the big picture.

    • Percentages show proportionate relationships more easily than raw data.

    • Compare like scales in a single table.

    • Convert numbers to a common scale when the numbers refl ect different scales (e.g., grams versus ounces of cereal consumption; monthly salary data versus hourly wage data).

    • Choose simplicity over complexity.

    • Several smaller tables reveal patterns better rather than one large, complex table.

    • Complex tables are used as a convenient reference source for multiple elements of data.

    • Use empty space and design to guide the eye to numbers that must be com- pared and to make patterns and excep- tions stand out.

    • Design a table with a smaller number of columns than rows.

    • Single-space numbers that must be compared.

    • Use gridlines to group numbers within a table; avoid gridlines between numbers that must be compared.

    • Use empty space to create gutters between numbers in simple tables.

    • Right-align column headers and table numbers.

    • Summarize each data display.

    • Write a phrase or sentence that summarizes your interpretation of the data presented; don’t leave interpretation to chance. • Summary statements might be used as the title of a table or chart in the fi nal research report. • The summary need not mention any numbers.

    • Label and title tables for clarity of message.

    • Titles should be comprehensive: Include what (subject of the title or message), where (if data have a geographic base), when (date or time period covered), and unit of measure.

    • Include common information in the title: It lengthens a title but shortens the table’s column headings.

    • Avoid abbreviations in column headings unless well known by your audience.

    • Avoid footnotes; if used, use symbols—like the asterisk—rather than numbers (numbers used as footnotes can be confused with the content numbers of the table).

    • For reference, provide an undertable source line for later reference.

    PicProfile offers a memory visual to enhance an example. In research, as in life, sometimes a picture is worth

    more than words. Sometimes you need to see what

    is being described to fully understand the

    foundation research principle.


    Assume you were adetermining whether to expand into western Europe with distribution facilities to service online purchases of your

    specialty goods company.

    We start with the above table that presents data developed from several studies on online shopping and purchasing behavior in

    selected countries in western Europe. The data are ordered alphabetically by country. While arranging in alphabetical order may be

    ideal for randomization or reduction of bias, it isn’t a logical choice for clarity of data presentation.

    What data might you need to help you make your decision about distribution facilities? Do you need to know the average

    transaction size? If you don’t know the conversion rate of the euro to the dollar, can you interpret the table? Should you put

    your investment in the United Kingdom or elsewhere?

    Table 2 E5 Per Capita One-Year Online Spending (2010)

    Annual Spending (EUROs)

    Average Annual Purchases

    Annual Spending (US$)

    United Kingdom 2284.9 36 1736.2

    Germany 658.0 20 500.0

    France 664.5 16 505.0

    Italy 345.5 14 262.6

    Spain 560.1 10 425.6

    Currency Exchange Rate: 1 US$ = 1.316 EURO

    Table 1 Spending by Internet Users in Selected Western European Countries 2010 (EUROs in Billions)

    Annual Spending

    Annual Purchases

    France Euro 664.5 16

    Germany Euro 658.0 20

    Italy Euro 345.5 14

    Spain Euro 560.1 10

    United Kingdom Euro 2284.9 36


    Table 2 recasts the data using Bigwood and Spore’s guidelines. First the table title has changed; now the annual period on which

    the spending data are based is more obvious, as well as the fact that we are looking at spending per capita for the top 5 European

    Union performers, known as the E5. We’ve also changed the column headers to refl ect currency, and we have right-justifi ed the

    headers and the numbers. We’ve rearranged the table by Average Spending (EURO) in descending order and interpreted the (EURO)

    column by adding a dollar conversion column. We might not need the rightmost column if we were euro spenders ourselves but, if we

    are more familiar with another currency, the addition of this column helps us interpret the data. With this arrangement, does Germany

    look attractive? While it might not currently appear to be as strong a contender as the United Kingdom, we know it is fi scally strong

    and located in a more central location to the other countries being considered.

    >picprofi le According to the 2012 Greenbook Research Industry Trends (GRIT) report, the top four emerging techniques, among both research buyers and providers all involve Internet use. “A big climber, from actual 2011 to expected 2012, is Mobile Surveys, with clients/buyers jumping from a current 17% to an expected 53% and vendors expecting the increase to be from 24% to 64%.” Some speculate that the mobile survey may be approaching its tipping point. Other methodologies, like Mobile Qualita- tive, Mobile Ethnography, and Gamifi cation, are getting a lot of buzz in the industry, but have yet to capture buyer/client sup- port to the same degree that they have earned researcher interest. As in previous studies, researcher interest tends to lead on methodology.

    Source: “Spring 2012 Greenbook Research Trends Report,” GreenBook® | New York AMA Communication Services Inc., February 2012, p. 22.

    Leonard Murphy, “GRIT Sneak Peek: What Emerging Research Techniques Will Be Used in 2012?” Greenbook, posted February 20, 2012. Downloaded April 18, 2012, research-techniques-will-be- used-in-2012/.

    Emerging Research Techniques

    59 66


    53 45


    40 35

    32 21

    31 43

    46 31

    31 22 23 24





    16 10

    11 11

    9 13

    11 25






    Social Media Analytics

    Online Communities

    Mobile Surveys

    Text Analytics

    Webcam-based Interviews

    Apps-based Research

    Eye Tracking

    Mobile Ethnography

    Mobile Qualitative

    Virtual Environments


    Visualization Analytics

    Prediction Markets

    Biometric Response


    Facial Analysis

    Gamification Methods Research provider (n=669) Research client (n=149)

    coo21507_fm_i-xxvi.indd xcoo21507_fm_i-xxvi.indd x 24/01/13 11:41 PM24/01/13 11:41 PM



    Learning aids cement the concepts.

    Discussion questions that go one step further. Five types of discussion questions reveal differing levels of

    understanding—from knowing a defi nition to applying a concept.

    Terms in Review 1 How does qualitative research differ from quantitative


    2 How do data from qualitative research differ from data in quantitative research?

    3 Why do senior executives feel more comfortable relying on quantitative data than qualitative data? How might a quali- tative research company lessen the senior-level executive’s skepticism?

    4 Distinguish between structured, semistructured, and un- structured interviews.

    Making Research Decisions 5 Assume you are a manufacturer of small kitchen electrics,

    like Hamilton Beach/Proctor Silex, and you want to de- termine if some innovative designs with unusual shapes and colors developed for the European market could be successfully marketed in the U.S. market. What qualitative research would you recommend, and why?

    6 NCR Corporation, known as a world leader in ATMs, point-of-sale (POS) retail checkout scanners, and check- in kiosks at airports, announced in June 2009 that it would move its world headquarters from Dayton (OH)

    > discussionquestions

    bibliography 98

    data marts 102

    data mining 102

    data warehouse 102

    dictionary 98

    directory 100

    encyclopedia 98

    expert interview 94

    exploratory research 94

    handbook 99

    index 98

    individual depth interview (IDI) 94

    investigative questions 113

    literature search 94

    management question 108

    measurement questions 118

    custom-designed 118

    predesigned 118

    primary sources 96

    research question(s) 112

    secondary sources 96

    source evaluation 100

    tertiary sources 97


    Terms in Review 1 Explain how each of the fi ve evaluation factors for a second-

    ary source infl uences its management decision-making value.

    a Purpose

    b Scope

    c Authority

    d Audience

    e Format

    2 Defi ne the distinctions between primary, secondary, and tertiary sources in a secondary search.

    3 What problems of secondary data quality must researchers face? How can they deal with them?

    Making Research Decisions 4 In May 2007, TJX Co., the parent company of T.J.Maxx and

    other retailers, announced in a Securities and Exchange Commission fi ling that more than 45 million credit and debit card numbers had been stolen from its IT systems. The company had taken some measures over a period of a few years to protect customer data through obfuscation and en- cryption. But TJX didn’t apply these policies uniformly across its IT systems. As a result, it still had no idea of the extent of the damage caused by the data breach. If you were TJX, what data-mining research could you do to evaluate the safety of your customer’s personal data?

    5 Confronted by low sales, the president of Oaks Interna- tional Inc. asks a research company to study the activities of the customer relations department in the corporation. What are some of the important reasons that this research project may fail to make an adequate contribution to the solution of management problems?

    6 You have been approached by the editor of Gentlemen’s Magazine to carry out a research study. The magazine has been unsuccessful in attracting shoe manufacturers as advertisers. When the sales reps tried to secure advertising from shoe manufacturers, they were told men’s clothing stores are a small and dying segment of their business. Since Gentlemen’s Magazine goes chiefl y to men’s clothing stores, the manufacturers reasoned that it was, therefore, not a good vehicle for their advertising. The editor believes that a survey (via mail questionnaire) of men’s clothing stores in the United States will probably show that these stores are important outlets for men’s shoes and are not declining in importance as shoe outlets. He asks you to develop a proposal for the study and submit it to him. Develop the management–research question hierarchy that will help you to develop a specifi c proposal.

    7 Develop the management–research question hierarchy for a management dilemma you face at work or with an orga- nization to which you volunteer.

    8 How might you use data mining if you were a human re- sources offi cer or a supervising manager?

    Bring Research to Life 9 Using the MindWriter postservicing packaging alternative

    as the research question, develop appropriate investigative questions within the question hierarchy by preparing an exhibit similar to Exhibit 5-8 .

    10 Using Exhibits 5-6, 5-8, 5b-1, and 5b-2, state the research question and describe the search plan that Jason should have conducted before his brainstorming sessions with Myra Wines. What government sources should be included in Jason’s search?


    mail survey a relatively low-cost self-administered study both delivered and returned via mail.

    main effect the average direct infl uence that a particular treat- ment of the IV has on the DV independent of other factors.

    management dilemma the problem or opportunity that requires a decision; a symptom of a problem or an early indication of an opportunity.

    management question the management dilemma restated in question format; categorized as “choice of objectives,” “gen- eration and evaluation of solutions,” or “troubleshooting or control of a situation.”

    management report a report written for the nontechnically ori- ented manager or client.

    management–research question hierarchy process of sequen- tial question formulation that leads a manager or researcher from management dilemma to measurement questions.

    manuscript reading the verbatim reading of a fully written presentation.

    mapping rules a scheme for assigning numbers to aspects of an empirical event.

    marginal(s) a term for the column and row totals in a cross-tabulation.

    matching a process analogous to quota sampling for assigning participants to experimental and control groups by having participants match every descriptive characteristic used in the research; used when random assignment is not possible; an attempt to eliminate the effect of confounding variables that group participants so that the confounding variable is present proportionally in each group.

    MDS see multidimensional scaling. mean the arithmetic average of a data distribution. mean square the variance computed as an average or mean. measurement assigning numbers to empirical events in com-

    pliance with a mapping rule. measurement questions the questions asked of the participants

    or the observations that must be recorded. measures of location term for measure of central tendency in a

    distribution of data; see also central tendency . measures of shape statistics that describe departures from the sym-

    metry of a distribution; a.k.a. moments, skewness , and kurtosis . measures of spread statistics that describe how scores cluster

    or scatter in a distribution; a.k.a. dispersion or variability (variance, standard deviation, range, interquartile range, and

    measures. mini-group a group interview involving two to six people. missing data information that is missing about a participant or

    data record; should be discovered and rectifi ed during data preparation phase of analysis; e.g., miscoded data, out-of- range data, or extreme values.

    mode the most frequently occurring value in a data distribution; data may have more than one mode.

    model a representation of a system that is constructed to study some aspect of that system or the system as a whole.

    moderating variable (MV) a second independent variable, be- lieved to have a signifi cant contributory or contingent effect on the originally stated IV-DV relationship.

    moderator a trained interviewer used for group interviews such as focus groups.

    monitoring a classifi cation of data collection that includes ob- servation studies and data mining of organizational databases.

    motivated sequence a presentation planning approach that in- volves the ordering of ideas to follow the normal processes of human thinking; motivates an audience to respond to the presenter’s purpose.

    multicollinearity occurs when more than two independent vari- ables are highly correlated.

    multidimensional scale a scale that seeks to simultaneously measure more than one attribute of the participant or object.

    multidimensional scaling (MDS) a scaling technique to simul- taneously measure more than one attribute of the participant or object; results are usually mapped; develops a geometric picture or map of the locations of some objects relative to others on various dimensions or properties; especially useful for diffi cult-to-measure constructs.

    multiphase sampling see double sampling . multiple-choice, multiple-response scale a scale that offers

    the participant multiple options and solicits one or more an- swers (nominal or ordinal data); a.k.a. checklist .

    multiple-choice question a measurement question that offers more than two category responses but seeks a single answer.

    multiple-choice, single-response scale a scale that poses more than two category responses but seeks a single answer, or one that seeks a single rating from a gradation of preference, in- terest, or agreement (nominal or ordinal data); a.k.a. multiple- choice question .

    multiple comparison tests compare group means following the fi nding of a statistically signifi cant F test.

    Key terms indexed at the end of the

    chapter and defi ned in the glossary.

    Glossary reinforces the importance

    of learning the language of


    Supplements offer the tools students and faculty ask for . . . and more. On the book’s Online Learning Center (

    cooper12e), students will fi nd cases (like this new one) and

    data sets, a research proposal, a sample student project, and

    supplemental material for several chapters, including

    templates for charting data, how the research industry works,

    bibliographic databases searching tips, complex experimental

    designs, test markets, pretesting, and multivariate analysis.

    You’ll also fi nd 34 cases, nine of which are full video cases.

    Also, several written cases have video components included.

    coo21507_fm_i-xxvi.indd xicoo21507_fm_i-xxvi.indd xi 24/01/13 11:41 PM24/01/13 11:41 PM




    For undergraduate students just learning about research methods or graduate students advancing their research knowledge, each new edition of Business Research Meth- ods promises—and has continually delivered—not only a teachable textbook but a valued reference for the future. As a mark of its worldwide acceptance as an industry standard, Business Research Methods is available in nine international editions and four languages.

    When you are creating a 12th edition, you don’t want to tinker too much with what has made instructors adopt your textbook for their students or what has prompted research- ers to use it as a valuable shelf reference. But to ignore change in the research environment would be negligent.


    We used the 2012 GreenBook Research Industry Trends (GRIT) Report as a starting point for creating the 12th edi- tion. This large study of research suppliers and research clients gave us clear direction on emerging techniques and how the research fi eld was changing. We focused our ef- forts on obtaining examples of these changes and they are included in content throughout the book and in Snapshots and PicProfi les—both contentwise and visually.

    Responsive . . . to Students and Faculty

    Snapshots, PicProfi les, and CloseUps are the way we re- veal what is timely and current in research. We wait until such issues are more mainstream before giving the topic a permanent place within the text. In fact, of the 82 Snap- shots and PicProfi les featured, 35 are completely new and one-half of the CloseUps had major updates. Of these new examples, you will fi nd topics dealing with biometrics, eye tracking via the Web, mobile surveys, online com- munities, listening tours, location-based tracking, talent analytics, incentivizing participants, data visualization, mixed mode surveys, mixed access recruiting, charting, as well as Internet research, cloud computing, using Excel in data analysis and presentation, Smartphone research, dirty data, gut hunches, wildcat surveys, and more. And you’ll discover research stories that relate to such organi- zations or brands as Mercedes-Benz, TNS-Infratest, NTT Communications, Next Generation Market Research, In- teractive Advertising Bureau, Groupon, TrustE, Decipher, Living Social, Troy-Bilt, among numerous others.

    There are currently about 200 images and text art sup- porting our learning objectives; you will discover that over one-quarter are new to this edition. We’ve updated our “From the Headlines” discussion ques tions, covering

    product introductions, employee issues, legal proceed- ings, advertising campaigns, and many more topics and added more research examples to the Instructor’s Manual, for use in class discussions or testing.

    Our book is designed for a one-semester course although under no circumstance is it imagined that the entire book be covered. In an effort to make the book more user friendly yet give faculty members tremendous fl exibility in choosing materials for the theme they set for their course, we have created an Online Learning Center for the text. Analogous to cloud computing, we stored regularly used data on McGraw-Hill’s servers that can be easily accessed through the Internet. Central to that design, we moved ma- terial from chapter appendices to the Online Learning Cen- ter thereby reducing the physical size of the book that our own students often carry with them. Among those items available at the Online Learning Center are How the In- dustry Works, Bibliographic Database Searches, Advanced Bibliographic Searches, Complex Experimental Designs, Test Markets, and Pretesting Options and Discoveries. Since many research methods courses for undergraduates don’t use multivariate statistics, we’ve moved our chap- ter “Multivariate Analysis: An Overview” to the Online Learning Center for the benefi t of graduate students. You’ll also fi nd written and video cases, questionnaires, data sets, a sample student project, and digital support materials re- lated to some of our Snapshots and CloseUps in the Online Learning Center.

    We continue to use chapter and end-of-text appendices for information that, given the differing skills and knowl- edge of their students, instructors may want to emphasize. We retained end-of-chapter appendices related to Craft- ing Effective Measurement Questions and Determining Sample Size, as well as end-of book appendices related to a sample proposal, a focus group guide, non-parametric statistics, and statistical tables.


    Process Series of Exhibits The core pedagogy of Business Research Methods is based on an understanding that student learners are of three types: visual, auditory, and kinesthetic. These exhibits offer a detailed, graphical map of the research process or a more detailed breakout of each subprocess, perfect for hands-on projects. Each of these exhibits is linked to others in the series with a consistent use of shape and color. You’ll fi nd 32 of these exhibits throughout the text. Changes in process exhibits, other exhibits, and embedded tables resulted in twenty- three major modifi cations using new information, data, or graphs throughout the text.


    coo21507_fm_i-xxvi.indd xiicoo21507_fm_i-xxvi.indd xii 24/01/13 11:41 PM24/01/13 11:41 PM



    >preface xiii

    Online Learning Center There is a wealth of informa- tion, samples, templates, and more in this Web depository.

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