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Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.


Printed in the United States of America.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Nahavandi, Afsaneh.

Organizational behavior / Afsaneh Nahavandi, University of San Diego, Robert B. Denhardt, University of Southern California, Janet V. Denhardt, University of Southern California, Maria P. Aristigueta, University of Delaware.

pages cm

ISBN 978-1-4522-7860-5 (hardcover)

1. Organizational behavior. I. Title. HD58.7.N338 2015 302.3′5—dc23 2013032049



This book is printed on acid-free paper.



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Brief Contents



Chapter 1: Introduction to Organizational Behavior: History, Trends, and Ethics


Chapter 2: Culture and Diversity: Developing a Cultural Mindset Chapter 3: Self-Awareness, Personality, Emotions, and Values Chapter 4: Perception and Attribution Chapter 5: Motivation and Engagement Chapter 6: Managing Stress Chapter 7: Fostering Creativity and Innovation


Chapter 8: Decision Making Chapter 9: Communicating Effectively With Others Chapter 10: Working in Groups and Teams Chapter 11: Managing Conflict and Negotiation Chapter 12: Leadership: Classic to Contemporary


Chapter 13: Organizational Power and Politics Chapter 14: Organizational Strategy and Structure Chapter 15: Organizational Culture and Change





Detailed Contents



Chapter 1. Introduction to Organizational Behavior: History, Trends, and Ethics What Is Organizational Behavior?

Individual, Group, and Organizational Levels of Analysis Social, Economic, and Ethical Context

A Brief History of Organizational Behavior The Classical Period The Humanistic Period Modern Organizational Behavior

Current Trends in Organizational Behavior Positive Organizational Behavior Neuroscience and Organizational Behavior

People Skills in Management Differentiating Between Managers and Leaders What Managers Do What Leaders Do Influence of Managers

Creativity and Change in a Global Society Creativity and Change A Global Society

Global Society: Global Ambassadors Mentor Emerging Women Leaders Across the Globe The Ethical Environment

Personal Integrity A Cultural Mindset Social Responsibility

Creativity and Change: Do Well, Do Good, or Do Both? Global Sustainability

Summary and Applications for Managers Key Terms Exercises Cases





Chapter 2. Culture and Diversity: Developing a Cultural Mindset What Is Culture and Why Does It Matter?

Defining Culture Characteristics of Culture Three Levels of Culture The Cultural Iceberg: What We Know and What We Don’t Know Sophisticated Stereotypes

Diversity in Today’s Workplace Primary and Secondary Dimensions of Diversity Benefits and Challenges of Workplace Diversity Legal Considerations Gender Diversity

Global Society: DeLoitte Builds Diversity Generational Diversity

National Culture Hall’s Cultural Context Framework Hofstede’s Five Cultural Dimensions Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness—GLOBE

Culture and Individual Behavior Developing a Cultural Mindset Creativity and Change: Responding to Cultural Differences

Cultural Mindset Components The Cultural Mindset in Organizations

Summary and Applications for Managers Key Terms Exercises Cases

Chapter 3. Self-Awareness, Personality, Emotions, and Values Understanding Individual Differences

Influence of Individual Differences: Behavioral Range Why Is Self-Awareness Important?

Skills and Abilities Skills Abilities

Creativity and Change: The Musical Instrument Museum Emotions

Emotional Intelligence Emotions in the Workplace

Personality Traits Myers-Briggs Type Inventory (MBTI)




Big Five Personality Traits Narcissism Proactive Personality

Values The Importance of Values

Global Society: The Right Way to Apologize Developing Self-Awareness Summary and Applications for Managers Key Terms Exercises Cases

Chapter 4. Perception and Attribution What Is Perception?

Perception Process Culture and Perception

The Three Stages of Perception Attention Stage Organization Stage

Global Society: Heineken’s PR Challenge Interpretation and Judgment Stage

The Attribution Process Information We Use to Make Attributions Making Attributions About Our Own behavior

Perceptual Biases Fundamental Attribution Error Stereotypes Halo-Horns and Similarity Effects Primacy and Recency Self-Serving Bias Difficulty in Overcoming Biases Managing Biases

Creativity and Change: Speaking of Leadership … Masculine or Feminine? Summary and Applications for Managers Key Terms Exercises Cases

Chapter 5. Motivation and Engagement Approaches to Motivation

Why Does Motivation Matter? Need Theories Expectancy Theory




Global Society: Motivation at Semco Goal Theories Equity Theory Reinforcement, Reward, and Punishment

Current Debates and Perspectives Motivation and Life Stages “Anti-Motivation” Theories

Trust and Engagement Creativity and Change: General Stanley McChrystal Creativity and Engagement Summary and Applications for Managers Key Terms Exercises Cases

Chapter 6. Managing Stress Defining Stress

The General Adaptation Syndrome The Consequences and Costs of Stress Stress: Good, Bad, and Ugly

Sources of Stress Individual Factors Organizational Factors

Creativity and Change: A Top Management Team Under Stress Coping With and Managing Stress

Personal Strategies Global Society: Nokia’s Culture

Organizational Strategies Summary and Applications for Managers Key Terms Exercises Cases

Chapter 7. Fostering Creativity and Innovation The Importance of Creativity and Innovation What Is Creativity?

Views of Creativity Characteristics of Creative Individuals Conceptual Skills and Abilities Creativity as Behavior Creativity as a Process An Integrated Perspective on Creativity

The Creative Process




Roles in the Creative Process Social and Structural Factors

Impediments to Creativity Defining the Problem Incorrectly Judging Ideas Too Quickly Stopping at the First Acceptable Idea Lack of Support Hostility to Sharing Knowledge

Fostering Creativity in Organizations Creativity and Change: Implementing Innovative Ideas: Sol and Robert Price

Challenging Work Supportive Supervision Organizational and Work Group Culture

Global Society: Alessi Embraces Failure Workload Pressures and Resources Positive Emotions

Fostering Creativity: Techniques and Tools The Idea Box or Matrix Analysis Synectics Mindmapping Design Thinking

Enhancing Your Personal Creativity Summary and Applications for Managers Key Terms Exercises Cases


Chapter 8. Decision Making Defining Decision Making

Levels of Decision Making Decision Making and Problem Solving Bottlenecks in Decision Making Why Decisions Fail

Ethical Decision Making Generating Alternatives Creativity and Change: Cirque du Soleil Implementing Good Decisions Models of Decision Making

The Rational Model The Organizational Process Model




The Collaborative Model Other Decision Making Models

Global Society: Asia’s Scottish Company Who Should Be Involved in Decision Making?

Involving the Group to Prevent Poor Decisions Levels of Participation and Styles of Decision Making Diversity: Opportunities and Challenges for Decision Making

Techniques for Making Decisions The Decision-Making Primer Focus Groups Brainstorming Cost-Benefit and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Nominal Group Technique Evidence-Based Management

Summary and Applications for Managers Key Terms Exercises Cases

Chapter 9. Communicating Effectively With Others Defining Communication The Communication Process Improving Interpersonal Communication

Barriers to Effective Communication Oral Communication

Global Society: Avon’s Global Reach Active Listening Supportive Communication Dialogue

Creativity and Change: Three Lessons in Contemporary Communications Electronic Communication

Specialized Forms of Communication Persuasive Communication Coaching and Personal Counseling Conducting Effective Meetings Writing Memos, Reports, and Proposals

Summary and Applications for Managers Key Terms Exercises Cases

Chapter 10. Working in Groups and Teams Defining Groups and Teams




Structural Issues in Groups and Teams Group Size and Composition Roles and Norms Cohesion, Conformity, and Deviance

Global Society: Management With Traditional Roots Developing Teams

The Forming Stage The Norming Stage The Storming Stage The Performing Stage Characteristics of Effective Teams

Types of Teams Top Management Teams Project Teams Process-Improvement Teams Cross-Functional Teams Self-Directed Teams

Creativity and Change: The Chilean Mine Disaster Virtual Teams

Helping Teams Become Effective Clear Goals Building Cohesion and Managing Diversity Developing Trust Team Leadership Training Managing Team Conflict Reward Structure Organizational Structure Building an Ethical and Collaborative Culture

Summary and Applications for Managers Key Terms Exercises Cases

Chapter 11. Managing Conflict and Negotiation Defining Conflict

Views of Conflict Consequences of Conflict Types and Levels of Conflict

Culture and Conflict Sources of Conflict

Personal Sources of Conflict




Organizational Sources of Conflict Creativity and Change: Helping Relationships Managing Conflict

Two General Approaches Individual Conflict Management Styles Preventing and Reducing Conflict Increasing or Stimulating Conflict

Negotiating The Negotiation Process Ethics and Negotiation Culture and Negotiation

Global Society: Cross-Cultural Negotiations Common Mistakes in Negotiation Negotiation Strategies

Summary and Applications for Managers Key Terms Exercises Cases

Chapter 12. Leadership: Classic to Contemporary Thinking About Leadership Traditional Approaches to Leadership

The Trait Approach The Behavior Approach The Contingency Approach

Contemporary Approaches to Leadership From Traits to Skills and Competencies The Transformational Approach Value-Based Leadership Authentic Leadership Shared Leadership Collaborative Leadership Positive Leadership Emotions and Leadership

Creativity and Change: Fully Human Leadership The Ethics of Leadership Global Society: Leading the Global Fund for Women

The Follower Leadership, Morality, and Globalization Ethical Issues

Creative Leadership Summary and Applications for Managers


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