Consider the following words with respect to how the sound represented by <t> is pronounced. For each column, specify the phonetic character of the allophone (how it is pronounced). Is it aspirated? Tapped? Then, as was done in this chapter for the allophones of English /p/, describe the allophones of /t/ and specify their distribution.
Examine the careful and casual pronunciations of the English expressions below; then for each one, (a) provide a transcription of the careful pronunciation; (b) identify the name of the phonological process that links them; (c) describe what actually occurs in the process in each particular case. Use one of these as identifiers for the process: Assimilation (ASS); Deletion (DEL); Insertion (INS); Metathesis (MET). An example is given for the first expression. (For this exercise, you may ignore vowel changes.) (Note: /ɱ/ is the IPA symbol for a labiodental nasal.)
|athlete||æθlit||æθəlit||INS||schwa inserted at syllable boundary between /θ/ and /l/, perhaps for ease of articulation|
|pass him||pæs hɪm||pæsəm|
|won’t you||wont ju||wontʃ;ə|
Based on Languages Other Than English
Fijian has prenasalized stops among its inventory of phonemes. The prenasalized stop [nd] consists of a nasal pronounced immediately before the stop, with which it forms a single sound unit. Consider the following Fijian words as pronounced in fast speech:
|vindi||‘to spring up’||dina||‘true’|
|tiko||‘to stay’||vundi||‘plantain banana’|
|dondo||‘to stretch out one’s hand’||mokiti||‘round’|
|vevendu||(a type of plant)|
On the basis of these data, determine whether [d], [nd], and [t] are allophones of a single phoneme or constitute two or three separate phonemes. If you find that two of them (or all of them) are allophones of a single phoneme, give the rule that describes the distribution of each allophone. If you analyze all three as separate phonemes, justify your answer. (Note: In Fijian all syllables end in a vowel.)
The distribution of the sounds [s] and [z] in colloquial Spanish is represented by the following examples in phonetic transcription:
Are [s] and [z] distinct phonemes of Spanish or allophones of a single phoneme? If they are distinct phonemes, support your answer. If they are allophones of the same phoneme, specify their distribution.