Anthropology/Ling Class

Based on English

· 4-1.

Consider the following words with respect to how the sound represented by <t> is pronounced. For each column, specify the phonetic character of the allophone (how it is pronounced). Is it aspirated? Tapped? Then, as was done in this chapter for the allophones of English /p/, describe the allophones of /t/ and specify their distribution.

tougher standing later petunia
talker still data potato
teller story petal return




Examine the careful and casual pronunciations of the English expressions below; then for each one, (a) provide a transcription of the careful pronunciation; (b) identify the name of the phonological process that links them; (c) describe what actually occurs in the process in each particular case. Use one of these as identifiers for the process: Assimilation (ASS); Deletion (DEL); Insertion (INS); Metathesis (MET). An example is given for the first expression. (For this exercise, you may ignore vowel changes.) (Note: /ɱ/ is the IPA symbol for a labiodental nasal.)

Expression Careful Casual Process Details
athlete æθlit æθəlit INS schwa inserted at syllable boundary between /θ/ and /l/, perhaps for ease of articulation
emphasis εmfəsɪs εɱfəsəs    
nuclear nukliər nukjələr    
espresso εsprεso εksprεso    
memory mεməri məmri    
prostate prɑstet prɑstret    
pass him pæs hɪm pæsəm    
won’t you wont ju wontʃ;ə    

Based on Languages Other Than English


Fijian has prenasalized stops among its inventory of phonemes. The prenasalized stop [nd] consists of a nasal pronounced immediately before the stop, with which it forms a single sound unit. Consider the following Fijian words as pronounced in fast speech:

vindi ‘to spring up’ dina ‘true’
kenda ‘we’ dalo ‘taro plant’
tiko ‘to stay’ vundi ‘plantain banana’
tutu ‘grandfather’ manda ‘first’
viti ‘Fiji’ tina ‘mother’
dovu ‘sugarcane’ mata ‘eye’
dondo ‘to stretch out one’s hand’ mokiti ‘round’
    vevendu (a type of plant)

On the basis of these data, determine whether [d], [nd], and [t] are allophones of a single phoneme or constitute two or three separate phonemes. If you find that two of them (or all of them) are allophones of a single phoneme, give the rule that describes the distribution of each allophone. If you analyze all three as separate phonemes, justify your answer. (Note: In Fijian all syllables end in a vowel.)



The distribution of the sounds [s] and [z] in colloquial Spanish is represented by the following examples in phonetic transcription:

izla ‘island’ tʃiste ‘joke’
fuersa ‘force’ eski ‘ski’
peskado ‘fish’ riezgo ‘risk’
muskulo ‘muscle’ fiskal ‘fiscal’
sin ‘without’ rezvalar ‘to slip’
rasko ‘I scratch’ dezde ‘since’
resto ‘remainder’ razgo ‘feature’

mizmo ‘same’ beizbɔl ‘baseball’
espalda ‘back’ mas ‘more’

Are [s] and [z] distinct phonemes of Spanish or allophones of a single phoneme? If they are distinct phonemes, support your answer. If they are allophones of the same phoneme, specify their distribution.

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