How did race play a role in enslaving Africans in colonial America?

 

Based on your reading of Chapter 4 in the textbook, the primary source documents, and the online lessons, please share your views on ONE of the discussion topics.

  1. How did race play a role in enslaving Africans in colonial America?
  2. How did the Great Awakening affect colonial America in the decades to come?

Please note that you need to write in separate paragraphs with a minimum of 250 words to your primary post.  Be sure to base your posting on concrete examples, specific details, and quotes f

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N G

E S

S

I E

R R

A

N E

V A

D A

 

Death Valley MOJAVE

DESERT

SONORAN

DESERT

G R E A T

B A S I N

Great Salt Lake

Desert

C O L O R A D O

P L AT E A U

C O

L U

M B

I A

P

L

A T

E A

U

B i

t t

e r

r o

o t

 

B lack Hil ls

G R

E A

T

P L

A I

N S

 

R O

C K

Y

M O

U N

T A

I N

S

E d w a r d s

P l a t e a u C

O

A S

T A L

 

P

L

A

I N

C E N T R A L L O W L A N D

U p p e r P e n i n

s u l a

L o w e r P e n

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l a

O

z a

r k P

l a t e a

u

H i

g h

P

l a

i n

s

L l a n o

E s t a c a d o

Okefeno kee Swamp

F l o r i d

a Ke

ys

G reat Dismal Swamp

A P

P

A L

A C

H I

A N

M

O U

N T

A I

N S

 

A P

P

A L

A C

H I

A N

P

L A

T E

A U

 

Great Smoky Mountains

P I

E D

M O

N T

 

Ad i ro ndack M o unt a ins

Whi t e M t ns

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Lo ng I s land

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Channe l I s lands

Po int Concept ion

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Vancouver I s land

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N A

D I A N S

H I

E

L D

 

Niagara Fa l l s

L A

U R

E N

T I

D E

S

C A

R P

S

I E R

R A

M A

D R

E O

C C

I D E

N T

A L

 

S I E R

R A

M A

D R E O

R I E N TA L

B A

J A

C

A L

I F

O R

N I

A

I s l e Roya le

The Ev e rg lade sQueen

Charlotte Islands

Alexander Archipelago

A l a s k a

P e n

i n

s u l a

 

A L A

S K A R

A N G E

B R O O K S R A N G E

N o r t h S l o p e

Seward Pen insu l a

Ku sk

ok w

im M

ou nt

a i

ns

St . E l ias Mounta ins Kena i

Pen insu la

Kod iak I s land

St . La w r ence

I s la nd

Nun iva k I s land

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I s lan d s

Hawaii

Maui

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Oahu

Kauai Nihau

Lanai

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+

+

St. Croix

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Tortola

U.S. Virgin Islands

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a m

en to

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G re

en R

.

C ol

ora do

R.

 

Platte R .

Lo up R.

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S. P l a tte

R.

K la

math R.

W il la

m ette R

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Salm o

n R.

C ol

um b

ia R

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K ooten

a y

R .

M iss

our i R.

Milk R.

Yell owston e R

.

B ig

h orn

R .

O

wyhee R .

Snake R .

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S. S

as katchewan R.

B ow

R . Qu’Appe lle R.

Sou ris R

. A

s s i n iboine R.

Li tt

le M

is so

u ri

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m es R

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Chey enne

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Fo ur

ch e

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ri R .

Des M oines R.

R ed

R . o f th

e N orth

 

M innesota R.

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W isc

onsin

R .

Il

lin ois R.

W

ab

ash R.

C um

ber land R.

Ohio R.

O h

io R

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St . L

aw re

nc e R

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Ottawa R.

H u

d son

R .

C on

n ec t i cu

t R .

D elaw

are R .

St. John R

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K e

n nebec R .

Penob scot R .

Al ba

ny R

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M is

si na

ibi R.

 

Kansa

s R.

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Red R.

W hit e R.

Arka

n s as R.

Can a d i a n R

.

M is

si ss

ip pi

R .

T om

bigb e e R

.

A la

ba m

a R.

Te nn

e s

se e

R .

R o anoke R .

Savannah R .

P e e D

ee R

.

A ltam aha R.

C ha

tt a

ho oc

he e

R .

S t. Joh

n ‘ s R .

R io

G ra

nd e

P ec

os R

.

R io G

rande

C olorado R .

Brazos R . Sabine R.

S a

n Joaqu

in

R .

G ila R .

Little C olorado R.

Yuk o n R

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Lake Superior

L a

ke M

ic h

ig an

 

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La ke

Er ie

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tari o

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f o f S

t. La

wr ence

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lf o

f M ai

ne

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lf of C a

liforn ia

 

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esa p

ea k

e B ay

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ya Ba y

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g S ea

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k I

n le

t

A le

nu ih

ah a C

han nel

Ka iw

i C ha

nn el

 

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ai C

ha nn

el

K a

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k ahi C

hannel

Caribbean Sea

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cific O cea

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S C

A D

E

R A

N G

E

 

C O

A S

T

R A

N G

E S

 

S I

E R

R A

N

E V

A D

A

Death Valley MOJAVE

DESERT

SONORAN

DESERT

G R E A T

B A S I N

Great Salt Lake

Desert

C O L O R A D O

P L AT E A U

C O

L U

M B

I A

P

L

A T

E A

U

B i

t t

e r

r o

o t

 

B lack Hil ls

G R

E A

T

P L

A I

N S

 

R O

C K

Y

M O

U N

T A

I N

S

E d w a r d s

P l a t e a u

C

O

A S

T A L

 

P

L

A

I N

C E N T R A L L O W L A N D

U p p e r P e n i n

s u l a

L o w e r P e n

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l a t e a

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H i

g h

P

l a

i n

s

L l a n o

E s t a c a d o

O kefenokee Swamp

F l o r i d

a Ke

ys

G r eat Dis mal Swamp

A P

P

A L

A C

H I

A N

M

O U

N T

A I

N S

 

A P

P

A L

A C

H I

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P

L A

T E

A U

 

Great Smoky Mountains

P I

E D

M O

N T

 

Ad i r ondack Mounta ins

W h i te Mtns

Cap e Cod

Long I s land

Cap e Ca navera l

Ca p e Hattera s

Cap e Lookout

Cap e Fear

Cap e Sab le

Cape San B las

Channe l I s lands

Po int Concept ion

Po int Reyes

Ca p e Mendoc ino

Cape B lanco

Cape Disappo intment

Cape F lat te ry

Vancouver I s land

C A

N A

D I A N S

H I

E

L D

 

N iagara Fa l l s

L A

U R

E N

T I

D E

S

C A

R P

 

S I E

R R

A M

A D

R E

O C

C I D

E N

T A

L

S I E R

R A

M A

D R E O

R I E N TA L

B A

J A

C

A L

I F

O R

N I

A

I s l e Roya le

The Everg ladesQueen

Charlotte Islands

Alexander Archipelago

A l a s k a

P e n

i n

s u l a

 

A L A

S K A R

A N G E

B R O O K S R A N G E

N o r t h S l o p e

S eward Pen i n su la

Ku sk

ok w

im M

ou nt

a i

ns

St . E l ias Mounta ins Kena i

Pen insu la

Kod iak I s land

St . Lawrence

I s land

Nun ivak I s land

Aleu t ian

I s lan d s

Hawaii

Maui

Molokai

Oahu

Kauai Nihau

Lanai

Kahoolawe

Mauna Kea

Mauna Loa

+

+

St. Croix

St. Thomas

St. John

Tortola

U.S. Virgin Islands

Colum bia R.

Sa cr

a m

en to

R .

G re

en R

.

C ol

ora do

R.

 

Platte R .

Lo up R.

N. Platte R.

S. P l a tte

R.

K la

math R.

W il la

m ette R

.

Salm o

n R.

C ol

um b

ia R

.

K ooten

a y

R .

M iss

our i R.

Milk R.

Yell owston e R

.

B ig

h orn

R .

O

wyhee R .

Snake R .

Snake R.

S. S

as katchewan R.

B ow

R . Qu’Appe lle R.

Sou ris R

. A

s s i n iboine R.

Li tt

le M

is so

u ri

R . Ja

m es R

.

Chey enne

R.

Be lle

Fo ur

ch e

R.

Niobrara R.

Georgian Ba y

Osage R .

M issou

ri R .

Des M oines R.

R ed

R . o f th

e N orth

 

M innesota R.

Mississippi R .

W isc

onsin

R .

Il

lin ois R.

W

ab

ash R.

C um

ber land R.

Ohio R.

O h

io R

.

St . L

aw re

nc e R

.

Ottawa R.

H u

d son

R .

C on

n ec t i cu

t R .

D elaw

are R .

St. John R

.

K e

n nebec R .

Penob scot R .

Al ba

ny R

.

M is

si na

ibi R.

 

Kansa

s R.

O uachita R

.

Red R.

W hit e R.

Arka

n s as R.

Can a d i a n R

.

M is

si ss

ip pi

R .

T om

bigb e e R

.

A la

ba m

a R.

Te nn

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se e

R .

R o anoke R .

Savannah R .

P e e D

ee R

.

A ltam aha R.

C ha

tt a

ho oc

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R .

S t. Joh

n ‘ s R .

R io

G ra

nd e

P ec

os R

.

R io G

rande

C olorado R .

Brazos R . Sabine R.

S a

n Joaqu

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R .

G ila R .

Little C olorado R.

Yuk o n R

.

Lake Superior L

a ke

M ic

h ig

an

Lake H uron

 

La ke

Er ie

Lak e On

tari o

Lake Mead

Lake Tahoe

Great Salt Lake

Lake Powell

Lake of the Woods

Lake Winnebago

Lake St. Clair

Lake of the Ozarks

Lake Champlain

Monterey Bay

James Bay

Lake Pontchartrain

Lake Okeechobee

Salton Sea

Iliamna Lake

Gulf of Mexico

G ul

f o f S

t. La

wr ence

G u

lf o

f M ai

ne

Delaware Bay

Breton Sound

Mississippi River Delta

Apalachee Bay

G u

lf of C a

liforn ia

 

Vizcaíno Bay

Str. of Juan de Fu c a

C h

esa p

ea k

e B ay

Galveston Bay Atchafala

ya Ba y

Gulf of Alaska

B erin

g S ea

Chukchi Sea

Beaufort Sea

Bristol Bay

Kuskokwim Bay

Norton Sound

Kotzebue Sound

C oo

k I

n le

t

A le

nu ih

ah a C

han nel

Ka iw

i C ha

nn el

 

K au

ai C

ha nn

el

K a

u la

k ahi C

hannel

Caribbean Sea

P a

cific O cea

n

A tl

an ti

c O

ce an

 

Pacific Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

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200

400 miles

400 kilometers

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PHYSICAL/POLITICAL MAP OF THE

UNITED STATES

 

 

New York

San Francisco

Los Angeles

Toronto

Montréal

Dallas

Chicago Barcelona

Rio de Janeiro

Johannesburg

Sydney

Kabul

Algiers

Luanda

Buenos Aires Canberra, A.C.T.

Nassau Dhaka

Thimphu

Gaborone

Brasília

Ottawa

N’Djamena

Santiago

Beijing

Bogotá

Havana

Quito

Cairo

Reykjavik

New Delhi

Jakarta

Tehr ̄an Tokyo

Nairobi

Maseru

Tripoli

Antananarivo

Nouakchott Mexico City

Ulan Bator

Rabat

Windhoek

Kathmandu

Muscat

Islamabad

Asunción

Lima

Manila

Lisbon

Pretoria

Seoul

Mogadishu

Khartoum

Dar es Salaam

Nuku’alofa

Tunis

Washington, D.C.

Moscow

Caracas

Cape Town

Pago PagoApia

Papeete

Adamstown

Astana

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La Paz

Sucre

Montevideo

London

Paris

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Oslo Stockholm

Madrid

BAHAMAS

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BELIZE

COSTA RICA

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DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

ECUADOR

EL SALVADOR

French Guiana (Fr.)

GUATEMALA

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HAITI

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NICARAGUA

PANAMA

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ST. LUCIA ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES

SURINAME

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

URUGUAY

ST. KITTS AND NEVIS

BOTSWANA

TANZANIA

MADAGASCAR

MALAWI

CO NG

O

CAMEROON

EQUATORIAL GUINEA

BEN IN

TO G

O

BURKINA

G H

A N

A

DJIBOUTI GAMBIA

GABON

GUINEAGUINEA-BISSAU CÔTE

D’IVOIRE (Ivory Coast)

LESOTHO

LIBERIA

M OZ

AM BI

Q UE

NAMIBIA

SENEGAL

SIERRA LEONE

SWAZILAND

KENYA UGANDA

Western Sahara (Mor.)

COMOROS

TUNISIA

DEMOCRATIC REP. OF CONGO

RWANDA

BURUNDI

ZAMBIA

ZIMBABWE

CENTRAL AFRICAN

REP.

PAKISTAN

OM AN

SRI LANKA

MYANMAR

BANGLADESH

AFGHANISTAN

VIETNAM

LAOS

THAILAND

CAMBODIA

BRUNEI

TAIWAN

NORTH KOREA

SOUTH KOREA

NEPAL

BHUTAN

SOLOMON ISLANDS

FIJI

SINGAPORE MALDIVES

MAURITIUS

ICELAND

AUSTRIA

BEL. LUX.

GERMANY

ROMANIA MOLDOVA

GEORGIA

AZERBAIJAN

TURKMENISTAN

UZBEKISTAN KYRGYZSTAN

TAJIKISTAN ARMENIA

BELARUS

LITHUANIA LATVIA

ESTONIA

RUS.

PORTUGAL

DENMARK

GREECE

BULGARIA SERBIA

MONT.

B.H.

SL. CROATIA

NETH. IRELAND

SWITZ.

CZECH REP.

SLOVAKIA

HUNGARY

ALBANIA

CYPRUS

JORDAN

ISRAEL LEBANON

SYRIA

UNITED ARAB

EMIRATES

YEMEN

QATAR BAHRAIN

KUWAIT

SAMOA

VANUATU

PALAU FEDERATED STATES OF MICRONESIA

MAC.

ERITREA

TONGA

FIJI

TUVALU

NAURU

MARSHALL ISLANDS

SÃO TOMÉ AND PRÍNCIPE

CAPE VERDE

SEY CHE

LLES

ARGENTINA

BOLIVIA

CHILE

COLOMBIA

CUBA MEXICO

PERU

VENEZUELA

ALGERIA

ANGOLA

CHAD

EGYPT

ETHIOPIA

LIBYA MO

RO CC

O

NIGERIA

SO MA

LIA

SOUTH AFRICA

MAURITANIA

SUDAN

NIGERMALI

MONGOLIA

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

MALAYSIA

PHILIPPINES

JAPAN

NEW ZEALAND

FRANCE

SPAIN

NO RW

AY

SW ED

EN FINLAND

POLAND

UKRAINE KAZAKHSTAN

ITALY

UNITED KINGDOM

SAUDI ARABIA

TURKEY

IRAQ IRAN

KIRIBATI

KIRIBATI

RUSSIA

Greenland (Denmark)

BRAZIL

CANADA

UNITED STATES

INDIA

CHINA

AUSTRALIA

INDONESIA

RUSSIA

Alaska (U.S.)

Hawaii (U.S.)

ANTARCTICA

NORTH AMERICA

ASIA

EUROPE

SOUTH AMERICA

EAST TIMOR

Crozet I s land s

Kergué len I s lands

Pr ince Edward I s lands (So. Af r i ca)

Tr i s tan Da Cunha Group (U.K . )

St . He lena (U.K . )

Ascens ion (U.K . )

South Georg ia

South Sandwich I s lands

South Orkney I s lands

South Shet land I s lands

Juan Fernandez Arch ipe lago (Ch i l e)

Easte r I s land (Ch i l e)

Marquesas I s lands

(Fr. )

P hoen ix I s l ands

Jan Mayen (Nor way)

Kermadec I s lands (N .Z . )

Nor fo lk I s land (Aus . )

Wrange l I s land

Faroe I s lands (Denmark)

Puer to R ico (U.S . )

Bermuda (U.K . )

Canar y I s lands (Sp. )

Azores (Por. )

Made i ra I s lands (Por. )

Andaman Is lands ( Ind ia)

Guam (U.S . )

Northern Mar iana I s lands (U.S . )

New Ca ledon ia (Fr. )

Timor

Tasmania

Java

Sumatra

Borneo

Réun ion (Fr. )

Ga lapagos I s lands

(Ecuador)

K i r i t imat i (K i r ibat i )

P i tca i rn I s lands (U.K . )

North I s land

South I s land

Heard I s land and McDona ld I s lands (Aus . )

French Southern and Antarct ic Lands (Fr. )

Socot ra (Yemen)

Diego Garc ia

Chagos Arch ipe lago (U.K . )

Queen E l i zabeth I s lands

Severnaya Zemlya

New S iber ian I s lands

A leut ia n I s la

nds

Sva lbard (Norway)

No va

ya Z

em lya

 

Franz Jose f Land

Cook I s lands French Po lynes ia (Fr. )

Fa lk land I s lands (U.K . )

E l l e smere I s land

Baff in I s land

V ic tor ia I s land

Banks I s land

A l e u t i a n I s l a n d s

Ku r i l I

s l a nd

s

0° 30°

60° 90°

30°

60 °

90 °

180°

150°W

120°

150 °E

12 0°

75°S

60°S

30°

60°

90 °

30°

60 °

90°

180° 150°E

120°

150 °W

12 0°

75°N

60°N

Great Australian

Bight

Hudson Strait

Foxe Basin

Gulf Of

Ad en

 

Lake Balkhash

Aral Sea

Baltic Sea

Celtic Sea

En glis

h C han

nel

Lake Baikal

Sea of Japan

South China

Sea

East China

Sea

Philippine Sea

Timor Sea

Yellow Sea

Coral Sea

Arafura Sea

Java Sea

Celebes Sea

Gulf of Thailand

De nm

ar k S

tra it

M oz

a m

bi qu

e C

ha nn

el

R ed Sea

Amundsen Gulf

Persian G u lf

C aspian

S ea

 

Chukchi Sea

Gulf of Alaska

Hudson Bay

Beaufort Sea

Bering Sea

Gulf of Mexico

Caribbean Sea

Scotia Sea

Gulf of Guinea

Norwegian Sea

North Sea

Labrador Sea

Baffin Bay Barents Sea

Kara Sea

Black Sea

Mediterranean Sea

Arabian Sea

Bay of Bengal

Sea of Okhotsk

Bering Sea

Tasman Sea

Laptev Sea

East Siberian Sea

South Pacific Ocean

North Atl a n t i c O cean

North Paci f ic O c e an

Ind ian Ocean

South Atl antic O cean

North Paci f ic O cean

S o u t h Paci f ic O c ean

Arc t i c O c e anArct ic Oce a n

Southern Ocea n

Southern O c e an

Indian Ocean

Pacific Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

Southern Ocean

Southern Ocean

Arctic Ocean

Pacific Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

0

0

750

750

1,500 miles

1,500 kilometers

Scale at equator

0

0

1,500 miles

1,500 kilometers

POLITICAL MAP of the WORLD

THE POLES

 

 

New York

San Francisco

Los Angeles

Toronto

Montréal

Dallas

Chicago Barcelona

Rio de Janeiro

Johannesburg

Sydney

Kabul

Algiers

Luanda

Buenos Aires Canberra, A.C.T.

Nassau Dhaka

Thimphu

Gaborone

Brasília

Ottawa

N’Djamena

Santiago

Beijing

Bogotá

Havana

Quito

Cairo

Reykjavik

New Delhi

Jakarta

Tehr ̄an Tokyo

Nairobi

Maseru

Tripoli

Antananarivo

Nouakchott Mexico City

Ulan Bator

Rabat

Windhoek

Kathmandu

Muscat

Islamabad

Asunción

Lima

Manila

Lisbon

Pretoria

Seoul

Mogadishu

Khartoum

Dar es Salaam

Nuku’alofa

Tunis

Washington, D.C.

Moscow

Caracas

Cape Town

Pago PagoApia

Papeete

Adamstown

Astana

Adis Ababa

La Paz

Sucre

Montevideo

London

Paris

Rome

Berlin

Oslo Stockholm

Madrid

BAHAMAS

BARBADOS

BELIZE

COSTA RICA

DOMINICA

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

ECUADOR

EL SALVADOR

French Guiana (Fr.)

GUATEMALA

GUYANA

HAITI

HONDURAS

JAMAICA

NICARAGUA

PANAMA

PARAGUAY

ST. LUCIA ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES

SURINAME

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

URUGUAY

ST. KITTS AND NEVIS

BOTSWANA

TANZANIA

MADAGASCAR

MALAWI

CO NG

O

CAMEROON

EQUATORIAL GUINEA

BEN IN

TO G

O

BURKINA

G H

A N

A

DJIBOUTI GAMBIA

GABON

GUINEAGUINEA-BISSAU CÔTE

D’IVOIRE (Ivory Coast)

LESOTHO

LIBERIA

M OZ

AM BI

Q UE

NAMIBIA

SENEGAL

SIERRA LEONE

SWAZILAND

KENYA UGANDA

Western Sahara (Mor.)

COMOROS

TUNISIA

DEMOCRATIC REP. OF CONGO

RWANDA

BURUNDI

ZAMBIA

ZIMBABWE

CENTRAL AFRICAN

REP.

PAKISTAN

OM AN

SRI LANKA

MYANMAR

BANGLADESH

AFGHANISTAN

VIETNAM

LAOS

THAILAND

CAMBODIA

BRUNEI

TAIWAN

NORTH KOREA

SOUTH KOREA

NEPAL

BHUTAN

SOLOMON ISLANDS

FIJI

SINGAPORE MALDIVES

MAURITIUS

ICELAND

AUSTRIA

BEL. LUX.

GERMANY

ROMANIA MOLDOVA

GEORGIA

AZERBAIJAN

TURKMENISTAN

UZBEKISTAN KYRGYZSTAN

TAJIKISTAN ARMENIA

BELARUS

LITHUANIA LATVIA

ESTONIA

RUS.

PORTUGAL

DENMARK

GREECE

BULGARIA SERBIA

MONT.

B.H.

SL. CROATIA

NETH. IRELAND

SWITZ.

CZECH REP.

SLOVAKIA

HUNGARY

ALBANIA

CYPRUS

JORDAN

ISRAEL LEBANON

SYRIA

UNITED ARAB

EMIRATES

YEMEN

QATAR BAHRAIN

KUWAIT

SAMOA

VANUATU

PALAU FEDERATED STATES OF MICRONESIA

MAC.

ERITREA

TONGA

FIJI

TUVALU

NAURU

MARSHALL ISLANDS

SÃO TOMÉ AND PRÍNCIPE

CAPE VERDE

SEY CHE

LLES

ARGENTINA

BOLIVIA

CHILE

COLOMBIA

CUBA MEXICO

PERU

VENEZUELA

ALGERIA

ANGOLA

CHAD

EGYPT

ETHIOPIA

LIBYA MO

RO CC

O

NIGERIA

SO MA

LIA

SOUTH AFRICA

MAURITANIA

SUDAN

NIGERMALI

MONGOLIA

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

MALAYSIA

PHILIPPINES

JAPAN

NEW ZEALAND

FRANCE

SPAIN

NO RW

AY

SW ED

EN FINLAND

POLAND

UKRAINE KAZAKHSTAN

ITALY

UNITED KINGDOM

SAUDI ARABIA

TURKEY

IRAQ IRAN

KIRIBATI

KIRIBATI

RUSSIA

Greenland (Denmark)

BRAZIL

CANADA

UNITED STATES

INDIA

CHINA

AUSTRALIA

INDONESIA

RUSSIA

Alaska (U.S.)

Hawaii (U.S.)

ANTARCTICA

NORTH AMERICA

ASIA

EUROPE

SOUTH AMERICA

EAST TIMOR

Crozet I s land s

Kergué len I s lands

Pr ince Edward I s lands (So. Af r i ca)

Tr i s t an D a Cu nha Group (U. K . )

St . He lena (U.K . )

Ascens ion (U. K . )

South Georg ia

South Sandwich I s lands

South Orkney I s lands

South Shet land I s lands

Juan Fernandez Arch ipe lago (Ch i l e)

Easte r I s land (Ch i l e)

Marquesas I s lands

(Fr. )

Phoen ix I s lands

Jan Mayen (N or way)

Kermadec I s lands (N .Z . )

Nor fo lk I s land (Aus . )

Wrange l I s land

Fa roe I s lands (Den m ark)

Puer to R ico (U.S . )

Bermuda (U.K . )

Canar y I s lands (Sp. )

Azores (Por. )

Made i ra I s lands (Por. )

Andaman Is lands ( Ind ia)

Guam (U.S . )

Northern Mar iana I s lands (U.S . )

New Ca ledon ia (Fr. )

Timor

Tasmania

Java

Sumatra

Borneo

Réun ion (Fr. )

Ga lapagos I s lands

(Ecuador)

K i r i t imat i (K i r ibat i )

P i tca i rn I s lands (U.K . )

North I s land

South I s land

Heard I s land and McDona ld I s lands (Aus . )

French Southern and Antarct ic Lands (Fr. )

Socot ra (Yemen)

Diego Garc ia

Chagos Arch ipe lago (U.K . )

Queen E l i zabeth I s lands

Severnaya Zemlya

New S iber ian I s lands

A leut ia n I s la

nds

Sva lbard (Norway)

No va

ya Z

em lya

 

Franz Jose f Land

Cook I s lands French Po lynes ia (Fr. )

Fa lk land I s lands (U.K . )

E l l e smere I s land

Baff in I s land

V ic tor ia I s land

Banks I s land

A l e u t i a n I s l a n d s

Ku r i l I

s l a nd

s

0° 30°

60° 90°

30°

60 °

90 °

180°

150°W

120°

150 °E

12 0°

75°S

60°S

30°

60°

90 °

30°

60 °

90°

180° 150°E

120°

150 °W

12 0°

75°N

60°N

Great Australian

Bight

Hudson Strait

Foxe Basin

Gulf Of

Ad en

 

Lake Balkhash

Aral Sea

Baltic Sea

Celtic Sea

En glis

h C han

nel

Lake Baikal

Sea of Japan

South China

Sea

East China

Sea

Philippine Sea

Timor Sea

Yellow Sea

Coral Sea

Arafura Sea

Java Sea

Celebes Sea

Gulf of Thailand

De nm

ar k S

tra it

M oz

a m

bi qu

e C

ha nn

el

R ed Sea

Amundsen Gulf

Persian G u lf

C aspian

S ea

 

Chukchi Sea

Gulf of Alaska

Hudson Bay

Beaufort Sea

Bering Sea

Gulf of Mexico

Caribbean Sea

Scotia Sea

Gulf of Guinea

Norwegian Sea

North Sea

Labrador Sea

Baffin Bay Barents Sea

Kara Sea

Black Sea

Mediterranean Sea

Arabian Sea

Bay of Bengal

Sea of Okhotsk

Bering Sea

Tasman Sea

Laptev Sea

East Siberian Sea

South Pacific Ocean

North At l a n t i c O cean

North Paci f ic O c e an

Indian Oce a n

S outh Atl antic O cean

North Paci f ic O cean

South Paci f ic O ce a n

Arc t i c O c e anArct ic Ocean

S outhern Ocea n

Southern O c e an

Indian Ocean

Pacific Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

Southern Ocean

Southern Ocean

Arctic Ocean

Pacific Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

0

0

750

750

1,500 miles

1,500 kilometers

Scale at equator

0

0

1,500 miles

1,500 kilometers

POLITICAL MAP of the WORLD

THE POLES

 

 

W. W. Norton & Company has been independent since its founding in 1923, when William Warder Norton and Mary D. Herter Norton first published lectures delivered at the People’s Institute, the adult education division of New York City’s Cooper Union. The firm soon expanded its program beyond the Institute, publishing books by celebrated academics from America and abroad. By midcentury, the two major pillars of Norton’s publishing program— trade books and college texts— were firmly established. In the 1950s, the Norton family transferred control of the company to its employees, and  today— with a staff of four hundred and a comparable number of trade, college, and professional titles published each year— W. W. Norton & Company stands as the largest and oldest publishing house owned wholly by its employees.

Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011, 2008, 2005 by Eric Foner

All rights reserved Printed in Canada

Editor: Steve Forman Associate Editor: Scott Sugarman Project Editor: Jennifer Barnhardt Editorial Assistants: Travis Carr, Kelly Rafey Managing Editor, College: Marian Johnson Managing Editor, College Digital Media: Kim Yi Production Manager: Sean Mintus Media Editor: Laura Wilk Media Project Editor: Rachel Mayer Media Associate Editor: Michelle Smith Media Assistant Editor: Chris Hillyer Marketing Manager, History: Sarah England Bartley Associate Design Director: Hope Miller Goodell Designer: Lisa Buckley Photo Editor: Stephanie Romeo Permissions Manager: Megan Schindel Permissions Specialist: Bethany Salminen Composition: Jouve Illustrations: Mapping Specialists, Ltd. Manufacturing: Transcontinental

Permission to use copyrighted material is included on page A-81.

The Library of Congress has cataloged an earlier edition as follows:

Names: Foner, Eric, 1943– author. Title: Give me liberty!: an American history / Eric Foner. Description: Fifth edition. | New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2016 | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2016018497 | ISBN 9780393283167 (hardcover) Subjects: LCSH: United States— History. | United States— Politics and government. | Democracy— United States— History. | Liberty— History. Classification: LCC E178 .F66 2016 | DDC 973—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016018497

ISBN this edition: 978-0-393-60342-2

W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110-0017 wwnorton.com W. W. Norton & Company Ltd., 15 Carlisle Street, London W1D 3BS

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

 

 

For my mother, Liza Foner (1909–2005),

an accomplished artist who lived through most of

the twentieth century and into the twenty- first

 

 

★ C O N T E N T S ★

List of Maps, Tables, and Figures xii

About the Author xv

Preface xvi

Acknowledgments xxiii

1 ★ A N E W W O R L D 1 The First Americans 3 ★ Indian Freedom, European

Freedom 12 ★ The Expansion of Europe 15 ★ Contact 18

★ The Spanish Empire 23 ★ The French and Dutch

Empires 34 ★ Voices of Freedom From Bartolomè de las Casas,

History of the Indies (1528), and From “Declaration of Josephe”

(December 19, 1681) … 36

2 ★ B E G I N N I N G S O F E N G L I S H A M E R I C A , 1 6 0 7 – 1 6 6 0 46 England and the New World 48 ★ The Coming of the

English 53 ★ Settling the Chesapeake 57 ★ The New

England Way 65 ★ New Englanders Divided 72 ★ Voices of

Freedom From “The Trial of Anne Hutchinson” (1637), and From John

Winthrop, Speech to the Massachusetts General Court (July 3, 1645) … 78 ★ Religion, Politics, and Freedom 83

3 ★ C R E AT I N G A N G L O – A M E R I C A , 1 6 6 0 – 1 7 5 0 89 Global Competition and the Expansion of England’s Empire 90

★ Origins of American Slavery 97 ★ Colonies in Crisis 105

★ The Growth of Colonial America 111 ★ Voices of Freedom

From Letter by a Swiss- German Immigrant to Pennsylvania (August 23,

1769), and From Memorial against Non- English Immigration

(December 1727) … 118 ★ Social Classes in the Colonies 123

viii ★

 

 

4 ★ S L AV E R Y, F R E E D O M , A N D T H E ST R U G G L E F O R E M P I R E , TO 1 7 6 3 131 Slavery and Empire 134 ★ Slave Cultures and Slave

Resistance 143 ★ An Empire of Freedom 148 ★ The

Public Sphere 152 ★ The Great Awakening 160 ★ Imperial

Rivalries 163 ★ Battle for the Continent 168 ★ Voices of

Freedom From Scarouyady, Speech to Pennsylvania Provincial Council

(1756), and From Pontiac, Speeches (1762 and 1763) … 174

5 ★ T H E A M E R I C A N R E V O L U T I O N , 1 7 6 3 – 1 7 8 3 179 The Crisis Begins 180 ★ The Road to Revolution 189 ★

The Coming of Independence 193 ★ Voices of Freedom From

Samuel Seabury, an Alarm to the Legislature of the Province in New-

York (1775), and From Thomas Paine, Common Sense (1776) … 202 ★ Securing Independence 204

6 ★ T H E R E V O L U T I O N W I T H I N 216 Democratizing Freedom 218 ★ Toward Religious

Toleration 223 ★ Defining Economic Freedom 228 ★ The

Limits of Liberty 232 ★ Slavery and the Revolution 237 ★

Daughters of Liberty 245 ★ Voices of Freedom From Abigail

Adams to John Adams, Braintree, Mass. (March 31, 1776), and From

Petitions of Slaves to the Massachusetts Legislature (1773 and 1777) … 248

7 ★ F O U N D I N G A N AT I O N , 1 7 8 3 – 1 7 9 1 253 America under the Confederation 255 ★ A New

Constitution 263 ★ The Ratification Debate and the Origin of

the Bill of Rights 270 ★ Voices of Freedom From David Ramsay,

The History of the American Revolution (1789), and From James

Winthrop, Anti- Federalist Essay Signed “Agrippa” (1787) … 276 ★ “We the People” 279

8 ★ S E C U R I N G T H E R E P U B L I C , 1 7 9 1 – 1 8 1 5 288 Politics in an Age of Passion 289 ★ Voices of Freedom From Judith

Sargent Murray, “On the Equality of the Sexes” (1790), and From Address

CONTENTS ★ ix

 

 

x ★ CONTENTS

of the Democratic- Republican Society of Pennsylvania (December 18, 1794)

… 298 ★ The Adams Presidency 301 ★ Jefferson in Power 309 ★ The “Second War of Independence” 316

9 ★ T H E M A R K E T R E V O L U T I O N , 1 8 0 0 – 1 8 4 0 325 A New Economy 327 ★ Market Society 337 ★ The Free

Individual 347 ★ Voices of Freedom From Recollections

of Harriet L. Noble (1824), and From “Factory Life as it is, by an

Operative” (1845) … 354 ★ The Limits of Prosperity 356

10 ★ D E M O C R A CY I N A M E R I C A , 1 8 1 5 – 1 8 4 0 364 The Triumph of Democracy 366 ★ Nationalism and Its

Discontents 373 ★ Nation, Section, and Party 379 ★ Voices

of Freedom From The Memorial of the Non- Freeholders of the City

of Richmond (1829), and From Appeal of Forty Thousand Citizens

Threatened with Disfranchisement (1838) … 384 ★ The Age of Jackson 387 ★ The Bank War and After 397

11 ★ T H E P E C U L I A R I N ST I T U T I O N 404 The Old South 405 ★ Life under Slavery 418 ★ Voices of

Freedom From Letter by Joseph Taper to Joseph Long (1840), and

From “Slavery and the Bible” (1850) … 422 ★ Slave Culture 428 ★ Resistance to Slavery 433

12 ★ A N A G E O F R E F O R M , 1 8 2 0 – 1 8 4 0 441 The Reform Impulse 442 ★ The Crusade against Slavery 452

Black and White Abolitionism 459 ★ The Origins of

Feminism 464 ★ Voices of Freedom From Angelina Grimké,

Letter in The Liberator (August 2, 1837), and From Catharine Beecher,

An Essay on Slavery and Abolitionism (1837) … 470

13 ★ A H O U S E D I V I D E D , 1 8 4 0 – 1 8 6 1 476 Fruits of Manifest Destiny 477 ★ A Dose of Arsenic 490 ★

The Rise of the Republican Party 498 ★ The Emergence of

Lincoln 503 ★ Voices of Freedom From The Lincoln- Douglas

Debates (1858) … 510 ★ The Impending Crisis 514

 

 

CONTENTS ★ xi

14 ★ A N E W B I RT H O F F R E E D O M : T H E C I V I L WA R , 1 8 6 1 – 1 8 6 5 519 The First Modern War 521 ★ The Coming of

Emancipation 529 ★ The Second American Revolution 536 ★

Voices of Freedom From Frederick Douglass, Men of Color to Arms

(1863), and From Abraham Lincoln, Address at Sanitary Fair, Baltimore

(April 18, 1864) … 544 ★ The Confederate Nation 549 ★ Turning Points 554 ★ Rehearsals for Reconstruction and the End of the

War 556

15 ★ “ W H AT I S F R E E D O M ? ” : R E C O N ST R U CT I O N , 1 8 6 5 – 1 8 7 7 564 The Meaning of Freedom 566 ★ Voices of Freedom From

Petition of Committee in Behalf of the Freedmen to Andrew Johnson

(1865), and From A Sharecropping Contract (1866) … 576 ★ The Making of Radical Reconstruction 579 ★ Radical Reconstruction

in the South 590 ★ The Overthrow of Reconstruction 594

Suggested Reading A- 1

The Declaration of Independence (1776) A-23

The Constitution of the United States (1787) A-27

Glossary A-47

Credits A-81

Index A-85

 

 

M A P S

L I S T O F M A P S , TA B L E S , A N D F I G U R E S

★★

CHAPTER 1

The First Americans 4

Native Ways of Life, ca. 1500 7

The Old World on the Eve of American Colonization, ca. 1500 16

Voyages of Discovery 20

Early Spanish Conquests and Explorations in the New World 30

The New World— New France and New Netherland, ca. 1650 40

CHAPTER 2

English Settlement in the Chesapeake, ca. 1650 58

English Settlement in New England, ca. 1640 74

CHAPTER 3

Eastern North America in the Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Centuries 94

European Settlement and Ethnic Diversity on the Atlantic Coast of North America, 1760 114

CHAPTER 4

Atlantic Trading Routes 135

The Slave Trade in the Atlantic World, 1460–1770 136

European Empires in North America, ca. 1750 164

Eastern North America after the Peace of Paris, 1763 173

CHAPTER 5

The Revolutionary War in the North, 1775–1781 209

The Revolutionary War in the South, 1775–1781 211

North America, 1783 213

CHAPTER 6

Loyalism in the American Revolution 234

CHAPTER 7

Western Lands, 1782–1802 256

Western Ordinances, 1784–1787 260

Ratification of the Constitution 278

Indian Tribes, 1795 281

CHAPTER 8

The Presidential Election of 1800 305

The Louisiana Purchase 312

The War of 1812 320

xii ★

 

 

MAPS ★ xiii

CHAPTER 9

The Market Revolution: Roads and Canals, 1840 330

The Market Revolution: Western Settlement, 1800–1820 334

The Market Revolution: The Spread of Cotton Cultivation, 1820–1840 336

Major Cities, 1840 339

Cotton Mills, 1820s 340

CHAPTER 10

The Missouri Compromise, 1820 378

The Americas, 1830 380

The Presidential Election of 1828 386

Indian Removals, 1830–1840 395

CHAPTER 11

Slave Population, 1860 408

Size of Slaveholdings, 1860 415

Distribution of Free Blacks, 1860 421

Major Crops of the South, 1860 426

Slave Resistance in the Nineteenth- Century Atlantic World 435

CHAPTER 12

Utopian Communities, Mid- Nineteenth Century 445

CHAPTER 13

The Trans- Mississippi West, 1830 s– 1840s 480

The Mexican War, 1846–1848 485

Gold- Rush California 489

Continental Expansion through 1853 493

The Compromise of 1850 494

The Kansas- Nebraska Act, 1854 497

The Railroad Network, 1850s 499

The Presidential Election of 1856 503

The Presidential Election of 1860 513

CHAPTER 14

The Secession of Southern States, 1860–1861 523

The Civil War in the East, 1861–1862 527

The Civil War in the West, 1861–1862 528

The Emancipation Proclamation 533

The Civil War in the Western Territories, 1862–1864 542

The Civil War, 1863 555

The Civil War, Late 1864–1865 559

CHAPTER 15

The Barrow Plantation 570

Sharecropping in the South, 1880 575

Reconstruction in the South, 1867–1877 599

The Presidential Election of 1876 600

 

 

xiv ★ TABLES AND FIGURES

TA B L E S A N D F I G U R E S CHAPTER 1

Table 1.1 Estimated Regional Populations: The Americas, ca. 1500 21

CHAPTER 3

Table 3.1 Origins and Status of Migrants to British North American Colonies, 1700–1775 113

CHAPTER 4

Table 4.1 Slave Population as Percentage of Total Population of Original Thirteen Colonies, 1770 140

CHAPTER 9

Table 9.1 Population Growth of Selected Western States, 1800–1850 (Excluding Indians) 335

Figure 9.1 Sources of Immigration, 1850 343

CHAPTER 11

Table 11.1 Growth of the Slave Population 410

Table 11.2 Slaveholding, 1850 (in Round Numbers) 411

Table 11.3 Free Black Population, 1860 424

CHAPTER 14

Figure 14.1 Resources for War: Union versus Confederacy 524

 

 

ERIC FONER is DeWitt Clinton Professor of History at Columbia Univer- sity, where he earned his B.A. and Ph.D. In his teaching and scholarship, he focuses on the Civil War and Reconstruction, slavery, and nineteenth- century America. Professor Foner’s publications include Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War; Tom Paine and Revolu- tionary America; Nothing but Freedom: Emancipation and Its Legacy; Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877; The Story of American Freedom; and Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. His history of Recon- struction won the Los Angeles Times Book Award for History, the Bancroft Prize, and the Parkman Prize. He has served as president of the Organization of Amer- ican Historians and the American Historical Association. In 2006 he received the Presidential Award for Outstanding Teaching from Columbia University. His most recent books are The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slav- ery, winner of the Bancroft and Lincoln Prizes and the Pulitzer Prize for His- tory, and Gateway to Freedom: The Hidden History of the Underground Railroad, winner of the New York Historical Society Book Prize.

A B O U T T H E A U T H O R★ ★

★ xv

 

 

Give Me Liberty! An American History is a survey of American history from the earliest days of European exploration and conquest of the New World to the first decades of the twenty- first century. It offers students a clear, concise narra- tive whose central theme is the changing contours of American freedom.

I am extremely gratified by the response to the first four editions of Give Me Liberty!, which have been used in survey courses at many hundreds of two- and four- year colleges and universities throughout the country. The comments I have received from instructors and students encourage me to think that Give Me Liberty! has worked well in their classrooms. Their comments have also included many valuable suggestions for revisions, which I greatly appreci- ate. These have ranged from corrections of typographical and factual errors to thoughts about subjects that needed more extensive treatment. In mak- ing revisions for this Fifth Edition, I have tried to take these suggestions into account. I have also incorporated the findings and insights of new scholarship that has appeared since the original edition was written.

The most significant changes in this Fifth Edition reflect my desire to integrate the history of the American West and especially the regions known as borderlands more fully into the narrative. In recent years these aspects of American history have been thriving areas of research and scholarship. Of course earlier editions of Give Me Liberty! have discussed these subjects, but in this edition their treatment has been deepened and expanded. I have also added notable works in these areas to many chapter bibliographies and lists of websites.

The definition of the West has changed enormously in the course of Amer- ican history. In the colonial period, the area beyond the Appalachians— present- day Kentucky, Tennessee, and western Pennsylvania and New York— constituted the West. In the first half of the nineteenth century, the term referred to Ohio, Michigan, Alabama, and Mississippi. After the Civil War, the West came to mean the area beyond the Mississippi River. Today, it is sometimes used to refer mainly to the Pacific coast. But whatever its geo- graphic locale, the West has been as much an idea as a place— an area beyond the frontier of settlement that promised newcomers new kinds of freedom, sometimes at the expense of the freedom of others, such as native inhabitants and migrant laborers. In this edition we follow Americans as they constructed their Wests, and debated the kinds of freedom they would enjoy there.

P R E F A C E ★★

xvi ★

 

 

Borderlands is a more complex idea that has influenced much recent histor- ical scholarship. Borders are lines dividing one country, region, or state from another. Crossing them often means becoming subject to different laws and customs, and enjoying different degrees of freedom. Borderlands are regions that exist on both sides of borders. They are fluid areas where people of differ- ent cultural and social backgrounds converge. At various points in American history, shifting borders have opened new opportunities and closed off others in the borderlands. Families living for decades or centuries in a region have suddenly found themselves divided by a newly created border but still living in a borderland that transcends the new division. This happened to Mexicans in modern- day California, Arizona, and New Mexico, for example, in 1848, when the treaty ending the Mexican- American War transferred the land that would become those states from Mexico to the United States.

Borderlands exist within the United States as well as at the boundaries with other countries. For example, in the period before the Civil War, the region straddling the Ohio River contained cultural commonalities that in some ways overrode the division there between free and slave states. The borderlands idea also challenges simple accounts of national development in which empires and colonies pave the way for territorial expansion and a future transcontinental nation. It enables us, for example, to move beyond the catego- ries of conquest and subjugation in understanding how Native Americans and Europeans interacted over the early centuries of contact. This approach also provides a way of understanding how the people of Mexico and the United States interact today in the borderland region of the American Southwest, where many families have members on both sides of the boundary between the two countries.

Small changes relating to these themes may be found throughout the book. The major additions seeking to illuminate the history of the West and of borderlands are as follows:

Chapter 1 now introduces the idea of borderlands with a discussion of the areas where European empires and Indian groups interacted and where authority was fluid and fragile. Chapter 4 contains expanded treatment of the part of the Spanish empire now comprising the borderlands United States (Arizona, California, New Mexico, Texas, and Florida) and how Spain endea- vored, with limited success, to consolidate its authority in these regions. In Chapter 6, a new subsection, “The American Revolution as a Borderlands Con- flict,” examines the impact on both Americans and Canadians of the creation, because of American independence, of a new national boundary separating what once had been two parts of the British empire. Chapter 8 continues this theme with a discussion of the borderlands aspects of the War of 1812. Chap- ter 9 discusses how a common culture came into being along the Ohio River

PREFACE ★ xvii

 

 

xviii ★ PREFACE

in the early nineteenth century despite the existence of slavery on one side and free labor on the other. Chapter 13 expands the treatment of Texan inde- pendence from Mexico by discussing its impact on both Anglo and Mexican residents of this borderland region. Chapter 14 contains a new examination of the Civil War in the American West.

In Chapter 16, I have expanded the section on the industrial west with new discussions of logging and mining, and added a new subsection on the dis- semination of a mythical image of the Wild West in the late nineteenth cen- tury. Chapter 17 contains an expanded discussion of Chinese immigrants in the West and the battle over exclusion and citizenship, a debate that centered on what kind of population should be allowed to inhabit the West and enjoy the opportunities the region offered. Chapter 18 examines Progressivism, countering conventional narratives that emphasize the origins of Progressive political reforms in eastern cities by relating how many, from woman suffrage to the initiative, referendum, and recall, emerged in Oregon, California, and other western states. Chapter 20 expands the treatment of western agriculture in the 1920s by highlighting the acceleration of agricultural mechanization in the region and the agricultural depression that preceded the general eco- nomic collapse of 1929 and after. In Chapter 22 we see the new employment opportunities for Mexican- American women in the war production factories that opened in the West. In Chapter 26, there is a new subsection on con- servatism in the West and the Sagebrush Rebellion of the 1970s and 1980s. Chapter 27 returns to the borderlands theme by discussing the consequences of the creation, in the 1990s, of a free trade zone connecting the two sides of the Mexican- American border. And Chapters 27 and 28 now include expanded discussions of the southwestern borderland as a site of an acrimonious battle over immigration— legal and undocumented— involving the federal and state governments, private vigilantes, and continuing waves of people trying to cross into the United States. The contested borderland now extends many miles into the United States north of the boundary between the two nations, and southward well into Mexico and even Central America.

I have also added a number of new selections to Voices of Freedom, the paired excerpts from primary documents in each chapter. Some of the new documents reflect the stronger emphasis on the West and borderlands; oth- ers seek to sharpen the juxtaposition of divergent concepts of freedom at par- ticular moments in American history. And this edition contains many new images— paintings, broadsides, photographs, and others— related to these themes, brought to life in a vibrant, full- color design.

Americans have always had a divided attitude toward history. On the one hand, they tend to be remarkably future- oriented, dismissing events of even

 

 

PREFACE ★ xix

the recent past as “ancient history” and sometimes seeing history as a burden to be overcome, a prison from which to escape. On the other hand, like many other peoples, Americans have always looked to history for a sense of personal or group identity and of national cohesiveness. This is why so many Americans devote time and energy to tracing their family trees and why they visit histori- cal museums and National Park Service historical sites in ever- increasing num- bers. My hope is that this book will convince readers with all degrees of interest that history does matter to them.

The novelist and essayist James Baldwin once observed that history “does not refer merely, or even principally, to the past. On the contrary, the great force of history comes from the fact that we carry it within us, [that] history is literally present in all that we do.” As Baldwin recognized, the force of history is evident in our own world. Especially in a political democracy like the United States, whose government is designed to rest on the consent of informed cit- izens, knowledge of the past is essential— not only for those of us whose pro- fession is the teaching and writing of history, but for everyone. History, to be sure, does not offer simple lessons or immediate answers to current questions. Knowing the history of immigration to the United States, and all of the ten- sions, turmoil, and aspirations associated with it, for example, does not tell us what current immigration policy ought to be. But without that knowledge, we have no way of understanding which approaches have worked and which have not— essential information for the formulation of future public policy.

History, it has been said, is what the present chooses to remember about the past. Rather than a fixed collection of facts, or a group of interpretations that cannot be challenged, our understanding of history is constantly changing. There is nothing unusual in the fact that each generation rewrites history to meet its own needs, or that scholars disagree among themselves on basic ques- tions like the causes of the Civil War or the reasons for the Great Depression. Precisely because each generation asks different questions of the past, each generation formulates different answers. The past thirty years have witnessed a remarkable expansion of the scope of historical study. The experiences of groups neglected by earlier scholars, including women, African- Americans, working people, and others, have received unprecedented attention from his- torians. New subfields— social history, cultural history, and family history among them— have taken their place alongside traditional political and dip- lomatic history.

Give Me Liberty! draws on this voluminous historical literature to pres- ent an up- to- date and inclusive account of the American past, paying due attention to the experience of diverse groups of Americans while in no way neglecting the events and processes Americans have experienced in common. It devotes serious attention to political, social, cultural, and economic history,

 

 

xx ★ PREFACE

and to their interconnections. The narrative brings together major events and prominent leaders with the many groups of ordinary people who make up American society. Give Me Liberty! has a rich cast of characters, from Thomas Jefferson to campaigners for woman suffrage, from Franklin D. Roosevelt to former slaves seeking to breathe meaning into emancipation during and after the Civil War.

Aimed at an audience of undergraduate students with little or no detailed knowledge of American history, Give Me Liberty! guides readers through the complexities of the subject without overwhelming them with excessive detail. The unifying theme of freedom that runs through the text gives shape to the narrative and integrates the numerous strands that make up the Amer- ican experience. This approach builds on that of my earlier book, The Story of American Freedom (1998), although Give Me Liberty! places events and personal- ities in the foreground and is more geared to the structure of the introductory survey course.

Freedom, and the battles to define its meaning, have long been central to my own scholarship and undergraduate teaching, which focuses on the nineteenth century and especially the era of the Civil War and Reconstruc- tion (1850–1877). This was a time when the future of slavery tore the nation apart and emancipation produced a national debate over what rights the for- mer slaves, and all Americans, should enjoy as free citizens. I have found that attention to clashing definitions of freedom and the struggles of different groups to achieve freedom as they understood it offers a way of making sense of the bitter battles and vast transformations of that pivotal era. I believe that the same is true for American history as a whole.

No idea is more fundamental to Americans’ sense of themselves as individ- uals and as a nation than freedom. The central term in our political language, freedom— or liberty, with which it is almost always used interchangeably— is deeply embedded in the record of our history and the language of everyday life. The Declaration of Independence lists liberty among mankind’s inal- ienable rights; the Constitution announces its purpose as securing liberty’s blessings. The United States fought the Civil War to bring about a new birth of freedom, World War II for the Four Freedoms, and the Cold War to defend the Free World. Americans’ love of liberty has been represented by liberty poles, liberty caps, and statues of liberty, and acted out by burning stamps and burn- ing draft cards, by running away from slavery, and by demonstrating for the right to vote. “Every man in the street, white, black, red, or yellow,” wrote the educator and statesman Ralph Bunche in 1940, “knows that this is ‘the land of the free’ . . . ‘the cradle of liberty.’”

The very universality of the idea of freedom, however, can be misleading. Freedom is not a fixed, timeless category with a single unchanging definition.

 

 

PREFACE ★ xxi

Indeed, the history of the United States is, in part, a story of debates, disa- greements, and struggles over freedom. Crises like the American Revolution, the Civil War, and the Cold War have permanently transformed the idea of freedom. So too have demands by various groups of Americans to enjoy greater freedom. The meaning of freedom has been constructed not only in congressional debates and political treatises, but on plantations and picket lines, in parlors and even bedrooms.

Over the course of our history, American freedom has been both a reality and a mythic ideal— a living truth for millions of Americans, a cruel mockery for others. For some, freedom has been what some scholars call a “habit of the heart,” an ideal so taken for granted that it is lived out but rarely analyzed. For others, freedom is not a birthright but a distant goal that has inspired great sacrifice.

Give Me Liberty! draws attention to three dimensions of freedom that have been critical in American history: (1) the meanings of freedom; (2) the social conditions that make freedom possible; and (3) the boundaries of freedom that determine who is entitled to enjoy freedom and who is not. All have changed over time.

In the era of the American Revolution, for example, freedom was primar- ily a set of rights enjoyed in public activity— the right of a community to be governed by laws to which its representatives had consented and of individu- als to engage in religious worship without governmental interference. In the nineteenth century, freedom came to be closely identified with each person’s opportunity to develop to the fullest his or her innate talents. In the twenti- eth, the “ability to choose,” in both public and private life, became perhaps the dominant understanding of freedom. This development was encouraged by the explosive growth of the consumer marketplace (a development that receives considerable attention in Give Me Liberty!), which offered Americans an unprecedented array of goods with which to satisfy their needs and desires. During the 1960s, a crucial chapter in the history of American freedom, the idea of personal freedom was extended into virtually every realm, from attire and “lifestyle” to relations between the sexes. Thus, over time, more and more areas of life have been drawn into Americans’ debates about the mean- ing of freedom.

A second important dimension of freedom focuses on the social conditions necessary to allow freedom to flourish. What kinds of economic institutions and relationships best encourage individual freedom? In the colonial era and for more than a century after independence, the answer centered on economic autonomy, enshrined in the glorification of the independent small producer— the farmer, skilled craftsman, or shopkeeper— who did not have to depend on another person for his livelihood. As the industrial economy matured, new

 

 

xxii ★ PREFACE

conceptions of economic freedom came to the fore: “liberty of contract” in the Gilded Age, “industrial freedom” (a say in corporate decision- making) in the Progressive era, economic security during the New Deal, and, more recently, the ability to enjoy mass consumption within a market economy.

The boundaries of freedom, the third dimension of this theme, have inspired some of the most intense struggles in American history. Although founded on the premise that liberty is an entitlement of all humanity, the United States for much of its history deprived many of its own people of free- dom. Non- whites have rarely enjoyed the same access to freedom as white Americans. The belief in equal opportunity as the birthright of all Americans has coexisted with persistent efforts to limit freedom by race, gender, and class and in other ways.

Less obvious, perhaps, is the fact that one person’s freedom has frequently been linked to another’s servitude. In the colonial era and nineteenth century, expanding freedom for many Americans rested on the lack of freedom— slavery, indentured servitude, the subordinate position of women— for others. By the same token, it has been through battles at the boundaries— the efforts of racial minorities, women, and others to secure greater freedom— that the meaning and experience of freedom have been deepened and the concept extended into new realms.

Time and again in American history, freedom has been transformed by the demands of excluded groups for inclusion. The idea of freedom as a uni- versal birthright owes much both to abolitionists who sought to extend the blessings of liberty to blacks and to immigrant groups who insisted on full recognition as American citizens. The principle of equal protection of the law without regard to race, which became a central element of American freedom, arose from the antislavery struggle and the Civil War and was reinvigorated by the civil rights revolution of the 1960s, which called itself the “freedom movement.” The battle for the right of free speech by labor radicals and birth- control advocates in the first part of the twentieth century helped to make civil liberties an essential element of freedom for all Americans.

Although concentrating on events within the United States, Give Me Lib- erty! also situates American history in the context of developments in other parts of the world. Many of the forces that shaped American history, including the international migration of peoples, the development of slavery, the spread of democracy, and the expansion of capitalism, were worldwide processes not confined to the United States. Today, American ideas, culture, and economic and military power exert unprecedented influence throughout the world. But beginning with the earliest days of settlement, when European empires com- peted to colonize North America and enrich themselves from its trade, Ameri- can history cannot be understood in isolation from its global setting.

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ★ xxiii

Freedom is the oldest of clichés and the most modern of aspirations. At var- ious times in our history, it has served as the rallying cry of the powerless and as a justification of the status quo. Freedom helps to bind our culture together and exposes the contradictions between what America claims to be and what it sometimes has been. American history is not a narrative of continual pro- gress toward greater and greater freedom. As the abolitionist Thomas Went- worth Higginson noted after the Civil War, “revolutions may go backward.” Though freedom can be achieved, it may also be taken away. This happened, for example, when the equal rights granted to former slaves immediately after the Civil War were essentially nullified during the era of segregation. As was said in the eighteenth century, the price of freedom is eternal vigilance.

In the early twenty- first century, freedom continues to play a central role in American political and social life and thought. It is invoked by individuals and groups of all kinds, from critics of economic globalization to those who seek to secure American freedom at home and export it abroad. I hope that Give Me Liberty! will offer beginning students a clear account of the course of American history, and of its central theme, freedom, which today remains as varied, contentious, and ever- changing as America itself.

A C K N O W L E D G M E N TS

All works of history are, to a considerable extent, collaborative books, in that every writer builds on the research and writing of previous scholars. This is especially true of a textbook that covers the entire American experience, over more than five centuries. My greatest debt is to the innumerable historians on whose work I have drawn in preparing this volume. The Suggested Reading list at the end of the book offers only a brief introduction to the vast body of histor- ical scholarship that has influenced and informed this book. More specifically, however, I wish to thank the following scholars, who generously read portions of this work and offered valuable comments, criticisms, and suggestions:

Joel Benson, Northwest Missouri State University Lori Bramson, Clark College Tonia Compton, Columbia College Adam Costanzo, Texas A&M University Carl Creasman Jr., Valencia College Blake Ellis, Lone Star College– CyFair Carla Falkner, Northeast Mississippi Community College Van Forsyth, Clark College

 

 

Aram Goudsouzian, University of Memphis Michael Harkins, Harper College Sandra Harvey, Lone Star College– CyFair Robert Hines, Palo Alto College Traci Hodgson, Chemeketa Community College Tamora Hoskisson, Salt Lake Community College William Jackson, Salt Lake Community College Alfred H. Jones, State College of Florida David Kiracofe, Tidewater Community College Brad Lookingbill, Columbia College Jennifer Macias, Salt Lake Community College Thomas Massey, Cape Fear Community College Derek Maxfield, Genesee Community College Marianne McKnight, Salt Lake Community College Jonson Miller, Drexel University Ted Moore, Salt Lake Community College Robert Pierce, Foothills College Ernst Pinjing, Minot State University Harvey N. Plaunt, El Paso Community College Steve Porter, University of Cincinnati John Putman, San Diego State University R. Lynn Rainard, Tidewater Community College Nicole Ribianszky, Georgia Gwinnett College Nancy Marie Robertson, Indiana University— Purdue University Indianapolis John Shaw, Portland Community College Danielle Swiontek, Santa Barbara Community College Richard Trimble, Ocean County College Alan Vangroll, Central Texas College Eddie Weller, San Jacinto College Andrew Wiese, San Diego State University Matthew Zembo, Hudson Valley Community College

I am particularly grateful to my colleagues in the Columbia University Department of History: Pablo Piccato, for his advice on Latin American his- tory; Evan Haefeli and Ellen Baker, who read and made many suggestions for improvements in their areas of expertise (colonial America and the history of the West, respectively); and Sarah Phillips, who offered advice on treating the history of the environment.

I am also deeply indebted to the graduate students at Columbia Univer- sity’s Department of History who helped with this project. For this edition,

xxiv ★ ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ★ xxv

Michael “Mookie” Kidackel offered invaluable assistance in gathering mate- rial related to borderlands and Western history. For previous editions, The- resa Ventura assisted in locating material for new sections placing American history in a global context, April Holm did the same for new coverage of the history of American religion and debates over religious freedom, James Del- bourgo conducted research for the chapters on the colonial era, and Beverly Gage did the same for the twentieth century. In addition, Daniel Freund pro- vided all- around research assistance. Victoria Cain did a superb job of locat- ing images. I also want to thank my colleagues Elizabeth Blackmar and Alan Brink ley for offering advice and encouragement throughout the writing of this book. I am also grateful to students who, while using the textbook, pointed out to me errors or omissions that I have corrected in this edition: Jordan Farr, Chris Jendry, Rafi Metz, Samuel Phillips- Cooper, Richard Sereyko, and David Whittle.

Many thanks to Joshua Brown, director of the American Social History Project, whose website, History Matters, lists innumerable online resources for the study of American history. Thanks also to the instructors who helped build our robust digital resource and ancillary package. The new InQuizitive for History was developed by Tonia M. Compton (Columbia College), Matt Zembo (Hudson Valley Community College), Jodie Steeley (Merced Commu- nity College District), Bill Polasky (Stillman Valley High School), and Ken Adler (Spring Valley High School). Our new History Skills Tutorials were created by Geri Hastings. The Coursepack was thoroughly updated by Beth Hunter (University of Alabama at Birmingham). Allison Faber (Texas A&M University) and Ben Williams (Texas A&M University) revised the Lecture PowerPoint slides. And our Test Bank and Instructor’s Manual were revised to include new questions authored by Robert O’Brien (Lone Star College– CyFair and Tamora M. Hoskisson (Salt Lake Community College).

At W. W. Norton & Company, Steve Forman was an ideal editor— patient, encouraging, and always ready to offer sage advice. I would also like to thank Steve’s editorial assistants, Travis Carr and Kelly Rafey, and associate editor, Scott Sugarman, for their indispensable and always cheerful help on all aspects of the project; Ellen Lohman and Bob Byrne for their careful copy editing and proofreading work; Stephanie Romeo and Fay Torresyap for their resourceful attention to the illustrations program; Hope Miller Goodell and Chin- Yee Lai for their refinements of the book design; Leah Clark, Tiani Kennedy, and Debra Morton- Hoyt for splendid work on the covers for the Fifth Edition; Jennifer Barnhardt for keeping the many threads of the project aligned and then tying them together; Sean Mintus for his efficiency and care in book production; Laura Wilk for orchestrating the rich media package that accompanies the

 

 

xxvi ★ ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

textbook; Jessica Brannon- Wranowsky for the terrific new web quizzes and outlines; Sarah England Bartley, Steve Dunn, and Mike Wright for their alert reads of the U.S. survey market and their hard work in helping establish Give Me Liberty! within it; and Drake McFeely, Roby Harrington, and Julia Reidhead for maintaining Norton as an independent, employee- owned publisher dedi- cated to excellence in its work.

Many students may have heard stories of how publishing companies alter the language and content of textbooks in an attempt to maximize sales and avoid alienating any potential reader. In this case, I can honestly say that W. W. Norton allowed me a free hand in writing the book and, apart from the usual editorial corrections, did not try to influence its content at all. For this I thank them, while I accept full responsibility for the interpretations pre- sented and for any errors the book may contain. Since no book of this length can be entirely free of mistakes, I welcome readers to send me corrections at ef17@columbia.edu.

My greatest debt, as always, is to my family— my wife, Lynn Garafola, for her good- natured support while I was preoccupied by a project that con- sumed more than its fair share of my time and energy, and my daughter, Daria, who while a ninth and tenth grader read every chapter as it was written and offered invaluable suggestions about improving the book’s clarity, logic, and grammar.

Eric Foner New York City July 2016

 

 

W. W. Norton offers a robust digital package to support teaching and learning with Give Me Liberty! These resources are designed to make students more effec- tive textbook readers, while at the same time developing their critical thinking and history skills.

R E S O U R C E S F O R S T U D E N T S All resources are available through digital.wwnorton.com/givemeliberty5sv1 with the access card at the front of this text.

N O RTO N I N Q U I Z I T I V E F O R H I STO R Y Norton InQuizitive for history is an adaptive quizzing tool that improves stu- dents’ understanding of the themes and objectives from each chapter, while honing their critical- analysis skills with primary source, image, and map anal- ysis questions. Students receive personalized quiz questions with detailed, guiding feedback on the topics in which they need the most help, while the engaging, gamelike elements motivate them as they learn.

G I V E M E L I B E R T Y ! D I G I TA L R E S O U R C E S F O R S T U D E N T S

A N D I N S T R U C T O R S

★★

 

 

H I STO R Y S K I L L S T U TO R I A L S The History Skills Tutorials feature three modules— Images, Documents, and Maps— to support students’ development of the key skills needed for the his- tory course. These tutorials feature videos of Eric Foner modeling the analysis process, followed by interactive questions that will challenge students to apply what they have learned.

ST U D E N T S I T E The free and easy- to- use Student Site offers additional resources for students to use outside of class. Resources include interactive iMaps from each chapter, author videos, and a comprehensive Online Reader with a collection of histori-

cal longer works, primary sources, novellas, and biographies.

E B O O K Free and included with new cop- ies of the text, the Norton Ebook Reader provides an enhanced reading experience that works on all computers and mobile devices.

Features include intuitive highlighting, note- taking, and bookmarking as well as pop- up definitions and enlargeable maps and art. Direct links to InQuizitive also appear in each chapter. Instructors can focus student reading by sharing notes with their classes, including embedded images and video. Reports on student and class- wide access and time on task allow instructors to monitor student reading and engagement.

 

 

R E S O U R C E S F O R I N S T R U C T O R S All resources are available through www.wwnorton.com/instructors.

N O RTO N C O U R S E PA C KS Easily add high- quality digital media to your online, hybrid, or lecture course— all at no cost to students. Norton’s Coursepacks work within your existing Learning Management System and are ready to use and easy to customize. The coursepack offers a diverse collection of assignable and assessable resources: Primary Source Exercises, Guided Reading Exercises, Review Quizzes, U.S. History Tours powered by Google Earth, Flashcards, Map Exercises, and all of the resources from the Student Site.

N O RTO N A M E R I C A N H I STO R Y D I G I TA L A R C H I V E The Digital Archive offers roughly 2,000 additional primary source images, audio, and video files spanning American history that can be used in assign- ments and lecture presentations.

T E ST B A N K The Test Bank is authored by Rob- ert O’Brien, Lone Star College– CyFair, and Tamora M. Hoskisson, Salt Lake City Community Col- lege, and contains more than 4,000 multiple- choice, true/false, short- answer, and essay questions.

 

 

I N ST R U CTO R ’ S M A N U A L The Instructor’s Manual contains detailed Chapter Summaries, Chapter Out- lines, Suggested Discussion Questions, and Supplemental Web, Visual, and Print Resources.

L E CT U R E A N D A RT P O W E R P O I N T S L I D E S The Lecture PowerPoint sets authored by Allison Faber, Texas A&M University, and Ben Williams, Texas A&M University, combine chapter review, art, and maps.

★ A N A M E R I C A N H I S T O R Y ★

 

 

G I V E M E L I B E RT Y !

★ A N A M E R I C A N H I S T O R Y ★

SEAGULL FIFTH EDITION

 

 

 

★ 1

F O C U S Q U E S T I O N S • What were the major patterns of Native American life in North America before

Europeans arrived?

• How did Indian and European ideas of freedom differ on the eve of contact?

• What impelled European explorers to look west across the Atlantic?

• What happened when the peoples of the Americas came in contact with Europeans?

• What were the chief features of the Spanish empire in America?

• What were the chief features of the French and Dutch empires in North America?

A N E W W O R L D

★ C H A P T E R   1 ★

The discovery of America,” the British writer Adam Smith announced in his celebrated work The Wealth of Nations (1776), was one of “the two greatest and most important events recorded in the history of mankind.” Historians no longer use the word “discovery” to describe the European exploration, conquest, and colonization of a hemisphere already home to millions of people. But there can be no doubt that when Christopher Columbus made landfall in the West Indian islands in 1492, he set in motion some of the most pivotal developments in human history. Immense changes soon followed in both the Old and New Worlds; the consequences of these changes are still with us today.

The peoples of the American continents and Europe, previously unaware of each other’s existence, were thrown into continuous interaction. Crops new to each hemisphere crossed the Atlantic, reshaping diets and transforming the natural environment. Because of their long isolation, the inhabitants of North

 

 

2 ★ CHAPTER 1 A New World

• C H R O N O L O G Y •

7000 bc Agriculture developed in Mexico and Andes

900– Hopi and Zuni tribes 1200 ad build planned towns

1200 Cahokia city- empire along the Mississippi

1400s Iroquois League established

1434 Portuguese explore sub- Saharan African Coast

1487 Bartolomeu Dias reaches the Cape of Good Hope

1492 Reconquista of Spain Columbus’s first voyage to

the Americas

1498 Vasco da Gama sails to the Indian Ocean

1500 Pedro Cabral claims Brazil for Portugal

1502 First African slaves transported to Caribbean islands

1517 Martin Luther’s Ninety- Five Theses

1519 Hernán Cortés arrives in Mexico

1528 Las Casas’s History of the Indies

1530s Pizarro’s conquest of Peru

1542 Spain promulgates the New Laws

1608 Champlain establishes Quebec

1609 Hudson claims New Netherland

1610 Santa Fe established

1680 Pueblo Revolt

• •

and South America had developed no immu- nity to the germs that also accompanied the colonizers. As a result, they suffered a series of devastating epidemics, the greatest popu- lation catastrophe in human history. Within a decade of Columbus’s voyage, a fourth continent— Africa— found itself drawn into the new Atlantic system of trade and popula- tion movement. In Africa, Europeans found a supply of unfree labor that enabled them to exploit the fertile lands of the Western Hemi- sphere. Indeed, of approximately 10 million men, women, and children who crossed from the Old World to the New between 1492 and 1820, the vast majority, about 7.7 million, were African slaves.

From the vantage point of 1776, the year the United States declared itself an indepen- dent nation, it seemed to Adam Smith that the “discovery” of America had produced both great “benefits” and great “misfortunes.” To the nations of western Europe, the devel- opment of American colonies brought an era of “splendor and glory.” The emergence of the Atlantic as the world’s major avenue for trade and population movement, Smith noted, enabled millions of Europeans to increase the “enjoyments” of life. To the “natives” of the Americas, however, Smith went on, the years since 1492 had been ones of “dreadful misfor- tunes” and “every sort of injustice.” And for millions of Africans, the settlement of Amer- ica meant a descent into the abyss of slavery.

Long before Columbus sailed, Europeans had dreamed of a land of abundance, riches, and ease beyond the western horizon. Once the “discovery” of this New World had taken place, they invented an America of the imag- ination, projecting onto it their hopes for a better life. Here, many believed, would arise unparalleled opportunities for riches, or at

 

 

THE FIRST AMERICANS ★ 3

What were the chief features of the Spanish empire in America?

least liberation from poverty. Europeans envisioned America as a religious ref- uge, a society of equals, a source of power and glory. They searched the New World for golden cities and fountains of eternal youth. Some sought to estab- lish ideal communities based on the lives of the early Christian saints or other blueprints for social justice.

Some of these dreams of riches and opportunity would indeed be fulfilled. To many European settlers, America offered a far greater chance to own land and worship as they pleased than existed in Europe, with its rigid, unequal social order and official churches. Yet the conditions that enabled millions of settlers to take control of their own destinies were made possible by the debase- ment of millions of others. The New World became the site of many forms of unfree labor, including indentured servitude, forced labor, and one of the most brutal and unjust systems ever devised by man, plantation slavery. The con- quest and settlement of the Western Hemisphere opened new chapters in the long histories of both freedom and slavery.

There was a vast human diversity among the peoples thrown into contact with one another in the New World. Exploration and settlement took place in an era of almost constant warfare among European nations, each racked by internal religious, political, and regional conflicts. Native Americans and Africans consisted of numerous groups with their own languages and cul- tures. They were as likely to fight one another as to unite against the European newcomers. All these peoples were changed by their integration into the new Atlantic economy. The complex interactions of Europeans, American Indians, and Africans would shape American history during the colonial era.

T H E F I R S T A M E R I C A N S

The Settling of the Americas

The residents of the Americas were no more a single group than Europeans or Africans. They spoke hundreds of different languages and lived in numerous kinds of societies. Most, however, were descended from bands of hunters and fish- ers who had crossed the Bering Strait via a land bridge at various times between 15,000 and 60,000 years ago— the exact dates are hotly debated by archaeolo- gists. Others may have arrived by sea from Asia or Pacific islands. Around 14,000 years ago, when glaciers began to melt at the end of the last Ice Age, the land link became submerged under water, separating the Western Hemisphere from Asia.

History in North and South America did not begin with the coming of Euro- peans. The New World was new to Europeans but an ancient homeland to those who already lived there. The hemisphere had witnessed many changes during its

What were the major patterns of Native American life in North America before Europeans arrived?

 

 

4 ★ CHAPTER 1 A New World

human history. First, the early inhabitants and their descendants spread across the two continents, reaching the tip of South America perhaps 11,000 years ago. As the climate warmed, they faced a food crisis as the immense ani mals they hunted, including woolly mammoths and giant bison, became extinct. Around 9,000 years ago, at the same time that agriculture was being developed in the Near East, it also emerged in modern- day Mexico and the Andes, and then spread to other parts of the Americas, making settled civilizations possible. Throughout the hemisphere, maize (corn), squash, and beans formed the basis of agriculture. The absence of livestock in the Western Hemisphere, however, limited farming by preventing the plowing of fields and the application of natural fertilizer.

Tenochtitlán

Monte Alban

Poverty Point

Chichen Itzá

Chaco Canyon

Cahokia

Palenque

NORTH AMERICA

SOUTH AMERICA

CENTRAL AMERICA

C hukch i Pen i nsu l a

Yucat án Pen i nsu la

Aleut ian I s lands INCAS

MAY ANS

MOHAWK ONEIDA

CAYUGA SENECA

ONONDAGA

CHEROKEE

HOPI ZUNI

PUEBLO CHICKASAW

CHOCTAW

AZTECS

Be rin

g St rait

Gulf of Mexico

Caribbean Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Pac i f ic Oc ean

0

0

500

500

1,000 miles

1,000 kilometers

Possible migration routes

Oh io Ri

ve r

M ississippi R.

A map illustrating the probable routes by which the first Americans settled the Western Hemisphere at various times between 15,000 and 60,000 years ago.

T H E F I R S T A M E R I C A N S

 

 

THE FIRST AMERICANS ★ 5

Indian Societies of the Americas

North and South America were hardly an empty wilderness when Europeans arrived. The hemisphere contained cities, roads, irrigation systems, extensive trade networks, and large structures such as pyramid- temples, whose beauty still inspires wonder. With a population close to 250,000, Tenochtitlán, the capital of the Aztec empire in what is now Mexico, was one of the world’s largest cities. Its great temple, splendid royal palace, and a central market com- parable to that of European capitals made the city seem “like an enchanted vision,” according to one of the first Europeans to encounter it. Farther south lay the Inca kingdom, centered in modern- day Peru. Its population of perhaps 12 million was linked by a complex system of roads and bridges that extended 2,000 miles along the Andes mountain chain.

When Europeans arrived, a wide variety of native peoples lived within the present borders of the United States. Indian civilizations in North America had not developed the scale, grandeur, or centralized organization of the Aztec and Inca societies to their south. North American Indians lacked the technologies Europeans had mastered, such as metal tools and machines, gunpowder, and the scientific knowledge necessary for long- distance navigation. No society north of Mexico had achieved literacy (although some made maps on bark and animal hides). They also lacked wheeled vehicles, since they had no domes- tic animals like horses or oxen to pull them. Their “backwardness” became a central justification for European conquest. But, over time, Indian societies had perfected techniques of farming, hunting, and fishing, developed structures of political power and religious belief, and engaged in far- reaching networks of trade and communication.

Mound Builders of the Mississippi River Valley

Remarkable physical remains still exist from some of the early civiliza- tions in North America. Around 3,500 years ago, before Egyptians built the pyramids, Native Americans constructed a large community centered on a series of giant semicircular mounds on a bluff overlooking the Mississippi River in present- day Louisiana. Known today as Poverty Point, it was a com- mercial and governmental center whose residents established trade routes throughout the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys. Archaeologists have found there copper from present- day Minnesota and Canada, and flint mined in Indiana.

More than a thousand years before Columbus sailed, Indians of the Ohio River valley, called “mound builders” by eighteenth- century settlers who encountered the large earthen burial mounds they created, had traded across half the continent. After their decline, another culture flourished in the

What were the major patterns of Native American life in North America before Europeans arrived?

 

 

6 ★ CHAPTER 1 A New World

Mississippi River valley, centered on the city of Cahokia near present- day St. Louis, a fortified community with between 10,000 and 30,000 inhabi- tants in the year 1200. Its residents, too, built giant mounds, the largest of which stood 100 feet high and was topped by a temple. Little is known of Cahokia’s political and economic structure. But it stood as the largest settled community in what is now the United States until surpassed in popu- lation by New York and Philadelphia around 1800.

Western Indians

In the arid northeastern area of present- day Arizona, the Hopi and Zuni and their ancestors engaged in settled village life for over 3,000 years. During the peak of the region’s culture, between the years 900 and 1200, these peo- ples built great planned towns with large multiple- family dwellings in local canyons, constructed dams and canals to gather and distribute water, and conducted trade with groups as far away as central Mexico and the Mississippi River valley. The largest of their structures, Pueblo Bonita, in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, stood five stories high and had more than 600 rooms. Not until the 1880s was a dwelling of comparable size constructed in the United States.

After the decline of these communities, probably because of drought, survivors moved to the south and east, where they established villages and perfected the techniques of desert farming, complete with irrigation systems to provide water for crops of corn, beans, and cotton. These were the people Spanish explorers called the Pueblo Indians (because they lived in small vil- lages, or pueblos, when the Spanish first encountered them in the sixteenth century).

On the Pacific coast, another densely populated region, hundreds of distinct groups resided in independent villages and lived primarily by fishing, hunt- ing sea mammals, and gathering wild plants and nuts. As many as 25 million salmon swam up the Columbia River each year, providing Indians with abun- dant food. On the Great Plains, with its herds of buffalo— descendants of the prehistoric giant bison— many Indians were hunters (who tracked animals on foot before the arrival of horses with the Spanish), but others lived in agricul- tural communities.

A modern aerial photograph of the ruins of Pueblo Bonita, in Chaco Canyon in present- day New Mexico. The rectangular structures are the foundations of dwellings, and the circular ones are kivas, or places of religious worship.

 

 

THE FIRST AMERICANS ★ 7

Indians of Eastern North America

In eastern North America, hundreds of tribes inhabited towns and villages scattered from the Gulf of Mexico to present- day Canada. They lived on corn, squash, and beans, supplemented by fishing and hunting deer, turkeys, and other animals. Indian trade routes crisscrossed the eastern part of the conti- nent. Tribes frequently warred with one another to obtain goods, seize captives, or take revenge for the killing of relatives. They conducted diplomacy and made peace. Little in the way of centralized authority existed until, in the fif- teenth century, various leagues or confederations emerged in an effort to bring

INUIT

INUIT

ALGONQUIAN

MICMAC PENOBSCOT

ABENAKI

HURON

NEUTRAL

ERIE

IROQUOIS

SUSQUEHANNOCK NARRAGANSETT

WAMPANOAG

PEQUOT MOHEGAN

CREE

CHIPPEWA

CHIPPEWA

OTTOWAMENOMINEE

WINNEBAGO

POTAWATOMI

ASSINIBOINE CHEYENNE SIOUX

TLINGIT

TSHIMSHIAN

KWAKIUTLS

NOOTKIN SHUSWAP

KOOTENAY BLACKFEET

SHOSHONE

FLATHEAD HIDATSA

MANDAN

KIOWA

SIOUX

ARAPAHO

PAWNEE IOWA

CHUMASH

LUISENO

DIEGUENO

COSTANO

POMO

 
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