. Briefly explain how overtime the internal conflict in El Salvador led to a proxy war

Worth 10 points.

  • Answer the following short answer questions in short paragraphs comprised of complete sentences. 
  • Format: Create a Word Document, with your name, course number, and date.
    • The answers should be in your own words, double spaced and in times new roman font 12.
    • If you use outside sources to complete your answers, then site the source to avoid plagiarism through the use of in-text citations and in a separate Works Cited page. Otherwise cite my lectures as these will definitely show up in Turnitin’s similarity report.
    • Copying from the textbook or cutting and pasting sections from websites or other reference materials or presenting someone else’s ideas as your own is plagiarism and will not be tolerated and will result in zero (0) points for that assignment.
  • Submit the finished Questions by submitting them via the Turnitin link below.

1. What is Collective Security and how did this concept limit US overt military interventions in Latin America?

2. What was the significance of the Truman Doctrine and how did it establish rules of engagement/confrontation between the US and USSR? How did the Truman Doctrine influence US policy towards Latin America from 1945-1953?

3. Explain why National Security Doctrines were established in Latin American Countries and how the National Security Doctrine play out in Chile?

4. Explain the cyclical relationship of USSR support for guerrilla groups in Latin America during the periods 1959-62, 1962-1979, 1980-1989.

5. Briefly explain how overtime the internal conflict in El Salvador led to a proxy war, and also explain, how this conflict finally ended.

INR 3243 International Relations of Latin America Instructor: Patricia Micolta PhD

Final Exam Review Questions & Terms

Cold War

1. What is Collective Security?

Under a collective security arrangement, an aggressor against any one state is considered

an aggressor against all other states, which act together to repel the aggressor.

Why was the United Nations based on this defense principle?

● Collective security arrangements have always been conceived as being global in scope;

this is in fact a defining characteristic, distinguishing them from regional alliances such

as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Both the League of Nations and the United

Nations were founded on the principle of collective security.

● Having endured two World Wars, the founding fathers of the United Nations sought,

above all else, to prevent World War III.

● President Roosevelt even envisioned the Great Powers as “Four Policemen” who would

oversee world politics and cooperate to confront threats to world peace. Therefore, for

the creators of the post-World War II order, “the cornerstone of world security is the unity

of those nations which formed the core of the grand alliance against the Axis.” If those

powers worked together effectively in responding to international crises, the United

Nations would succeed and peace would prevail. It was hoped that the United Nations

would provide a forum that would enable those Great Powers to remain united, to

coordinate their policies, and to co-manage the international system.

2. Why was George Kennan’s Long Telegram so central to the Policy of




In his famous “Long Telegram” from Moscow in February 1946 and through a briefly

anonymous article in Foreign Affairs in 1947 was to lay out a third path between the

extremes of war and appeasement—containment. Stalin, he said, is not Hitler. He does

not have a fixed timetable for aggression. He is determined to dominate Europe and, if

possible, the world, but there is no hurry about it. If the US and its allies could be patient

and contain Soviet expansionism without war or appeasement over a sufficiently long

period of time the Russians would change their priorities.

3. What was the Iron Curtain?

the political, military, and ideological barrier erected by the Soviet Union after World

War II to seal off itself and its dependent eastern and central European allies from open

contact with the West and other noncommunist areas.

4. How did bilateral tensions between the United States and the USSR manifest in

territorial, economic, and political terms during the Cold War?

 Territorial: East vs West Europe division (physical spheres of influence)

 Economically: Communism vs Capitalism

 Politically: Totalitarianism vs Democracy

5. What was the Truman Doctrine?

With the Truman Doctrine, President Harry S. Truman established that the United States

would provide political, military and economic assistance to all democratic nations under

threat from external or internal authoritarian forces. The Truman Doctrine effectively

reoriented U.S. foreign policy, away from its usual stance of withdrawal from regional

conflicts not directly involving the United States, to one of possible interventions in

faraway conflicts.



6. Intervention in Guatemala

Pressure on U.S. politicians to identify themselves with anti-Communist causes was

strong; it was politically dangerous to appear “soft” of Communism. This often led the

U.S. to prefer right wing to left wing dictators and to resist reform forces in favor of

stable and strong autocrats. The U.S. saw the need for a religious crusade against atheistic

Communism, an ideological struggle for free enterprise, and or free enterprise, and a

political fight against soviet expansion.

The Organization of American States (OAS) passed a resolution that cited the threat of

International Communism in the hemisphere as grounds for intervention .Guatemala

voted against the resolution because they feared the U.S. might use this as grounds for

intervention in Latin America; their action confirmed U.S. suspicions that the

Communists had control.

U.S. leaders, facing pressures from U.S. business interests and, more decisively, public

pressures and personal convictions to step up the crusade against International

Communism, were persuaded that the U.S. needed to take strong anti-Communist

measures urgently. They were willing to accept any basis, even circumstantial evidence,

to justify intervention in Guatemala. This overzealous attitude, however, led to acts that

were questionable under international law and abruptly reversed progress toward

democratic reforms

7. Nixon Visit : Nixon’s Latin American tour. Nixon went to Latin America but was

received by demonstrations and protests in Uruguay, Venezuela, Peru, Argentina. This

was the first turning point.

8. Cuban Revolution



a. Political, Economic Context pre-revolution

A bloody and costly struggle to achieve independence from Spain had devastated Cuba’s

economy. The insurgent leaders, known as the mambises, had been decimated.

The U.S. Congress passed the Platt Amendment, granting the U.S. the right to intervene

militarily in Cuba to protect its interests there. The U.S. position further undermined the

legitimacy of the government, as it placed the United States at the center of Cuban affairs.

Invoking the Platt Amendment, the United States would occupy Cuba between 1906 and

1909, and continue to intervene in later years.

b. Differences among groups opposing Batista Regime :Movimiento Revolucionario-

MR 26 de JulioFidel Castro. The difference between this movement and the others was

that it will fight the Batista’s forces in rural areas, hidden in the mountains. (many people

think that this is the only group that was fighting Fulgencio Batista Gov. but there were

many others more). In contrast people fighting the other movement in urban areas were

more targeted by the Batista’s police and more willing to die for example Frank Pais and

Jose Antonio Echeverria. Not all of them agree to what policies to implement afterwards.

c. Post-Revolution policies: o Agrarian Reforms: Eliminated large states and

expropriated land with compensation in Cuban bonds. No foreign allowed to own

agricultural land. Appropriates most American properties in Cuba.

o In reaction to this reform, the Eisenhower administration places an economic embargo

and in 1961 cuts ties with the island. And puts in place to attack Cuba’s Bay of Pigs (led

by Cuban exiles and supported by the CIA to remove Castro)



9. Wars by Proxy : A result of the Truman doctrine and the cold war, they are indirect

conflict between the US and the USSR (superpowers) throughout the globe through

“clients/surrogates” whom they would provide with weapons, money, intelligence and

propaganda to resist assured mutual destruction. These happened in El Salvador and

Nicaragua, Cuba and Chile

10. Modernization Theory:

· Economic Development > Economic Growth > Middle Class > Political Democracy

11. What is the difference between covert and over military action? Why did the United

States rely on covert operations during the Cold War?

· Covert operations rely on funneling intelligence and aid without being directly involved so

that the President has plausible deniability. Vietnam.

Overt action is big stick diplomacy where the US would bring gun boats; everyone knows.

Panama Canal.

Why did the United States rely on covert operations during the Cold War?

Was no longer able to rely on overt action with the creation of organizations based on the

principle of collective security, like the United Nations, which severely restricted the hegemonic

ability of the United States.

For the purpose of wanting to avoid another nuclear standoff with USSR

12. Bay of Pigs Invasion :

In 1960 a Belgian ship Le Coubre (carrying weapons) explodes while workers were unloading

the ship in Havana harbor which alerts the Castro regime to a possible U.S. invasion.

April 17, 1961- the invasion (crafted by Eisenhower, but carried out by the Kennedy)



ends in failure because, the Cuban exile community did not have air support and were

apprehended by Castro’s regime. This was humiliating for US strategy; it boosted

Castro’s political stature and pushed Cuba toward the USSR and set the stage for the

Cuban Missile Crisis

The purpose of this attack was to remove Castro from power

13. Cuban Missile crisis :

· October 16, 1962 the Soviet Union began installing medium-range missiles in Cuba to prevent

another U.S. intervention, to which the U.S. responded with a naval blockade. The 13-

day nuclear standoff finished on October 28th, when the Soviet Union acceded to the

removal of the missiles from Cuba, in exchange for a U.S. commitment to remove

missiles from Turkey & to desist from invading Cuba.

14. Alliance for Progress : Economic plan to ignite economic interest in the region in

order to prevent Soviet influence in the region and the communist ideas. It was proposed

by the Kennedy administration. It was highly influenced by the ideas of the

modernization system. (it was kind of a marshal plan for LA, fully funded by the U.S)

15. National Security Doctrine:(military aspects in the way that the United States was

trying to prevent Soviet Union influenced in the region) Was established through covert

operations. After the Cuban Revolution a main objective of U.S foreign policy makers

was to prevent another Cuba.

o Know Difference between radical(people joined an armed movement) and

modern(people who worked through democratic changes)



a. As set up by the US via Wars by Proxy : Supported right-wing dictatorships and guerilla

movements that were unlikely to be influenced by communism

b. As set up by governments in Latin America : Removed elections, censored the media, no

congress, enacted the ability to arrest people without due process

16. Chile Case : (example of national security doctrine intervention)

After Salvador Allende (a Marxist) became Chile’s president U.S Gov involved in Chilean

Politics. Nixon was upset bc a socialist government had been democratically elected.

They fear a domino effect in other countries like Peru, Bolivia etc.. U.S interest economic

interests were at stake (nationalizations affected Purina, Ford, U.S, copper, ITT)

17. The Forty Committee Cold War II : 1. Created by the Nixon administration to

remove the Chile’s gov after Salvador Allende became president. It proposed four plans:

o To convince the Chilean congress to snub Allende (failed)

o To promote a military coup (creating military alliances) (it worked) (to take power by

force) (Ex. Pinochet regime)

o Invisible blockade (economic plan to destabilize the Chile’s economy) –shut down

economic assistance, opposition to international credits, discouragement of U.S

investment, and a disruption in world copper market.

o Engage in a negative media campaign

1. What were the characteristics (socio economic background,objectives, training) of

guerrilla movements in Latin America?

A. Socio economic: small, urban, led by members of the middle class (college educated


B. Objective: topple and deter military dictatorships, establish their own leadership



C. Training: a few were trained in Cuba and by the Soviet Union but few had actual ties to

the regime

2. What effect did the Cuban Missile Crisis have on the Soviet Funding of Guerrillas in

Latin America?

Because of détente where they respect each other’s sphere of influence, USSR cuts funding and

ties to a lot of guerrillas.

3. Why did Cuba finally stop exporting the Revolution in the 1960s and 1970s? a. Did the

Foco Theory work?

A. Cuba stopped exporting the revolution thanks to the Brezhnev Doctrine that threatened

Cuba with economic sanctions (stop purchasing sugar) if Cuba didn’t stop trying to

export their revolution.

B. The Foco Theory did not work. It failed to gather support from the peasants and rural

areas of other countries, it received little to no support by other groups, and Castro

stopped financially supporting it after a while.

4. What factors led the Soviet Union and Cuba to increase the military presence in the

region during the 1980s?

5. What kind of activities did Guerrillas engage in and why did they fight?

· Raids on police stations & military barracks, kidnappings for extortion, kidnappings for

political motives, seizing of embassies, and bombings were some of the tactics

· The ‘why’ varied based on the guerilla but in many cases the Cuban Revolution and the rise of

authoritarian regimes inspired the rise of guerrilla movement; authoritarian oppression could

only be fought by force.



6. Why did U.S. policymakers begin placing Human Rights in the agenda towards Latin

America? What strategy did policymakers use to curve Human Rights abuses?

“Our commitment to human rights must be absolute… Because we are free, we can never be

indifferent to the fate of freedom elsewhere.”

· Activism in congress and the election of Jimmy Carter helped Human Rights to become a

major issue. However, this policy was geared towards Latin America and not those of great

strategic value in the East-West conflict.

· U.S. policymakers tried to reign in the power of these dictators by cutting foreign aid. In 1978

– the Congress finally agreed to cut military aid to countries that engaged in gross human rights


7. What effect did the Carter administration’s policy on Human Rights have on rightwing

military dictatorships and Castro’s authoritarian regime?

· In 1980, President Carter applied the “open arms policy” to accept Cubans arriving in Florida

during the Mariel Boatlift. His policy created tensions with authoritarian regimes, which had

been able to act with impunity, and it showed the hypocrisy of the Castro regime, which held

political prisoners, while boasting to practice social justice. Bureaucratic-authoritarian regimes

held deep beliefs in the sanctity of state and nation and they reacted with combinations

annoyance and disdain but not submission

8. Why did Central America become so important for U.S. foreign policy in the 1980s?

The United States still fearing a “Domino Effect” convulsions in El Salvador and Nicaragua

threatened to change the political order to spread to neighboring countries, and to pose new



challenge to the US; it was seen as a testing group of national resolve in a worldwide struggle

against the forces of communism.

9. The Sandinistas: A guerrilla movement that rose in Nicaragua named after Augusto Cesar

Sandino. They rose in opposition to Anastasio Jr. (Tachito) in the form of armed resistance due to

a lack of institutions. They had two policy goals: mixed economy (in order to achieve social

justice) and independent and nonaligned foreign policy. Opened the system up to election in

1987 and were voted out of power assault on their regime by the Regan administration

10. The Contras:

The Reagan Administration ordered in 1983 the CIA funding for a covert force of 500 (15,000

troops in 1985) men, which would attempt to take down the Sandinista government, the contra-

revolutionaries or “contras”. This covert operation would later lead to the Iran-contra affair,

where congress was never told about US operations in Nicaragua.

11. Iran-Contra Affair

· This was a clear violation of check and balances; all covert operations need to be approved by

President Reagan in person and in writing and by statue congress must be notified because the

funds for those activities must be strictly accounted for. The funds for the contras came from

covert actions organized by the NSC & specifically Oliver North who worked for the National

Security Council

· Supposedly, the covert action was not approved by the president and Congress was not

notified, so funds were not accounted for, which mean there was no accountability; there was a

violation of congressional check on executive branch, and violated the 1982 Boland Amendment

which prohibited any covert operations or funding to topple the Sandinista government in




· President Reagan-US National Security Council (headed by Robert McFarlane and John

Poindexter)- Oliver North Manager of the ‘Enterprise”-standalone organization independent of

congressional oversight – “enterprise” headed by former US officer and Iranian Arms Deals

(funds came from the party countries in need of US aid and private donors). They gave Iran arms

in exchange for hostages and funds and they funded the contras with money and weapons which

went both ways.

12. The Contadora Group and Esquipulas Agreement

· Led by Mexican President Miguel de la Madrid & foreign ministers of Colombia, Panama, &

Venezuela it was a joint diplomatic mediation of Central American Conflicts. Peace negotiations

were help in 1983 with warring parties in Guatemala, Nicaragua, & El Salvador. No immediate

agreement emerged from the Contadora Negotiations but they created a “Document of

Objectives” –the basis for the 1986 Esquipulas agreement.

· The Esquipulas Agreement was led by Costa Rican President Oscar Arias led to peace in

1987. All parties agreed to remove U.S. & Soviet/Cuban assistance, to reduce troops, & to host

elections. Arias received Nobel Peace Prize. Governments were more inclined to sign this

because of all the carnage of war whereas in the earlier agreement they believed they could win.

13. The Reagan Administration tacitly supported military regimes in Latin America

because it tried to reinstate military aid to them, but why did the administration change its

policy and began to promote democracy in Latin America?



Regan moved away from policy of détente and began to directly challenge the USSR by

supporting democracy.US policy could not be contradictory therefore he found it hard to support

military regimes in South America when advocating for democracy.

14. What were the social and economic costs of the Cold War on Latin America? Post Cold

· Casualties –death, repression

· Poverty Increased deficits, debt, and loss of productivity because of 1980s wars.

War/Age of Uncertainty/Democratization

1. Why is the post-cold war age characterized as uncertain?

· This was a unipolar moment where no clear enemy existed after the fall of the USSR

2. According to U.S. policymakers what were/are the new post-cold war threats?

Most of these threats arose from the threat it posed to US national interest; proliferation of

nuclear weapons and terrorism (global) economic crises, international immigration (illegal) and

the trade of illegal psychoactive drugs (inter-mestic)

3. Why did Latin America take so long to democratize? What have been some historical


· Unwillingness of some elites to accept the ideas of the enlightenment in the 1800s and social

conditions like the wars of the1800s between: liberals vs. conservatives (royalists), federalists vs.

centralists, and free traders vs. mercantilists. During the 1900s many countries fell under military

tutelage who oversaw ‘democratization’

4. Why did democratization take place?

· During the 1970s military regimes lost their legitimacy by overstaying their welcome; once

political order was established (communism was defeated during the cold war) there was no

reason for being. These military regimes were also inefficient economic managers and the



economies suffered from high debt and inflation. Also, in some cases the military was ineffective

at winning a war or defending national territory (which was their foremost purpose). Argentine

case- the military could not win a war, which was their foremost purpose. Human rights abuses:

disappearances, torture, incarceration, concentration camps, and the killing of the political

opposition were rampant and delegitimized military regimes domestically and internationally.

Civilian policymakers became less ideological and more pragmatic as groups on both sides of the

spectrum worked together to establish democratic regimes. With the fall of the Soviet Union,

communism as a goal becomes obsolete.

a. Changes perception of people towards military authoritarianism

b. Changes views of Civilians towards democracy

5. Transitions to democracy

· Concession: when a dominant regime decides that it is in its own interest to move towards

democracy. Public pressure is muted, process is long, and the end product is partially democratic.

México, Brazil, Guatemala and Honduras

· Negotiation: regimes decide to withdraw from power, but they are obligated to consult with a

broad range of civil opinion. Process is quicker, less elite controlled. Uruguay, Peru, Chile,

Nicaragua, and El Salvador

· Retreat: authoritarian regimes are unable to hold on to power and are driven out of office by

popular opposition and by internal divisions. Argentina, Ecuador, and Bolivia

· Intervention: democracy is introduced at the instigation of some external power. Panama and




6. What do civil-military negotiations focus on?

The new rules of the game; reaching a general consensus over the political and economic role of

government and protecting the military from criminal prosecution for human rights abuse

7. George H.W. Bush and Bill Clinton general policies : Set up the new post- Cold War


O Militarily – Maintain U.S military leadership, enforce current territorial boundaries.

O International threats based on tern-mestic/transitional issues.

· Economically – Open up markets for American commerce in LA and the world by

promoting Neoliberal agenda and creating free trade agreements.

· Ideologically/Diplomatically – Promote Democracy and Human Rights.

o Ex: Cuba maintained economic embargo.

o George Bush’s – Operation Just Cause (Panama)

o Bill Clinton – Operation Uphold Democracy (Haiti). Little tolerance for new military

dictatorships in the region.

o Practiced tolerance for democratically elected governments, even if they were ideologically to

the left of the U.S. Ex: Venezuela with Hugo Chaves.



8. How did Latin American policymakers react to the George W. Bush’s rhetoric war on

terror? And why?

· The policy was seen as confrontational, especially since the region elected left wing

Presidents to power which led to very poor diplomatic relations with regional leaders. Also, he

lost political credibility when no weapons of mass destruction were found in Iraq; Overall

9. Why was the 2005 Summit in Argentina such a low point for US-Latin American


· Nestor Kirshner spoke strongly against the Free Trade of the Americas Treaty bc it was

crafted to benefit U.S commercial interests above those of the entire region.

· George W. Bush left early bc his administration had very poor diplomatic relations with

regional leaders,

O The administration could not convince LA leaders to approve the FTAA

O The region elected center-left candidates to power which opposed his administration’s tactics

for the 48-hour cup of Venezuela

O War on terror rhetoric.

10. Did the Barack Obama Administration improve Inter-American relations? And if so,

how? What issues did the Obama Administration focus on?

“I don’t come to debate the past- I come to deal with the future. I believe, as some of our

previous speakers have stated, that we must learn from history, but we cannot be trapped by it



· United States government established bureaucracies that focus only on Latin America and

continue to pursue U.S policies in Latin America, such as: the DEA (fight the narcotics trade),

the state department (establish policies to open markets for U.S. goods and services) and to

counteract the negative effects of greater restrictions on travel and remittances to Cuba, these

restrictions were relaxed.

· The relationship with Venezuela was also ameliorated to some degree. He responded

differently to coups than the GW bush administration; instead of saying that we supported the

coup because we didn’t like the previous ruler GW refused to recognize the government and

pressured them to democratically elect leaders (Venezuela, Honduras)

· Obama Presidency continues to respect the electoral outcomes of democracies in Latin

American and in pressing countries with political crises to re-establish democratic rule; this

greatly reduced the ability of Latin American heads of state to use anti-American rhetoric at the

Summit of the Americas in 2015 where he physically established a normalization of relations

with Cuba.

11. How did Barack Obama Administration use the Summit of the America’s Meetings?

• As a way to set up a foreign policy agenda with the region and sought

• reestablish a more positive diplomatic relation with LA leaders.

• Differentiated himself from George W Bush.

12. What policies has Donald Trump sought to implement to reduce immigration from

Latin America?



13. Why does Trump see Latin American immigration as problematic? a. Which countries

in the region benefit from Trump’s policies on immigration and which don’t?

·- Temporary immigration status to Venezuela

·- Ended temporary immigration for Haiti, Nicaragua , Hondura and El Salvador

14. What other policies has Trump considered important to implement, and which ones

have been successful so far? Which have been less successful, so far?

a. Cuba:As candidate, vowed to reverse Obama’s Executive Orders which

have relaxed trade and travel barriers in the United States.

Now people could come and travel to Cuba

b. Free Trade Agreements: o Renegotiate or eliminated – Trans Pacific Trade Partnership and

Bilateral Treaties.

c. Drug War: o Unclear about drug policy

o National Drug Control Strategy not released until 2019.

Does use diplomatic threats and budgets to attempt generating cooperation. Ex: With Colombian


15. How does he use the Summit of the Americas compared to his predecessors?

• Cancelled the trip due to: Concerns with Syrian Chemical Weapons attack

• Sent Vice President Pence.

• Many believed it was the best bc he doesn’t have a good relation with many of the

presidents that were going to be present in the summit.

• Many in the region not optimistic with the trump administration.

16. What are the limits to US potential intervention in Venezuela?

– · Venezuelan regional humanitarian crisis, take the role of leadership, but the group of lima



Have been ahead of this, and help with humanitarian crisis

– Latin American leaders opposed military intervention in Venezuela .

– Cite us history of military intervention, violation of sovereignty, potential counterattacks,

– Increased level of refugee ( Venezuela) due to the intervention and potential


How has the Trump Administration been able to alleviate the Venezuelan Refugee Crisis?

– Since Venezuelan government had denied aid by the U.S which has led to food,

and medical shortages.

– The trump administration has: U.s Government agencies and military

which provide humanitarian aid to refugees

– U.U, NGOS and Latin American government

(Colombia and Brazil) that are directly receiving Venezuelan refugee,


Border Disputes/War in Latin America

1. Why do countries go to war?

Countries go to war over what their policy makers’ values:

4 major factors:

– territory: a study of 155 wars in over 300 years, found that over half -83% involved in

territorial boundaries:

– Contribute to wealth of state: Resources, tax revenue from residents and industries.

Strategic Value: strategic geography, access to waterways routes.

– cultural value: people assigned or ethnic ties(holy land) like Palestine because 3

religions were born



– Policy implementation. A state may go to war to advance enforce the

implementation of a policy to protect security /economic interest.

– {for example, Spanish american war, Roosevelt corollary interventions.}

– Regime change: a state may go to war, to change the type of government in another

state (this is done to increase the influence of the aggressor state within the country

being targeted for example (gunboat diplomacy), prevalent during the cold war, and

after the cold war. U.S intervention promote democracy.

– balance of power: countries may form an alliance go to war to restrain the power of

an aggressor state or a country may want to challenge the power of the hegemon

( For example: Spain -American war in 1898)

2. Know some of the regions border conflicts

a. Cisplatine war :argentina-brazil(1825-28) created Uruguay as a buffer state(treaty of


b. Triple alliance war :war (1865-1870) Paraguay vs brazil , argentina & uruguay{conflict

over river routes to reduce the size of Paraguay)

c. The War of the Pacific :)-

Chile Vs peru and Bolivia:

Chile declared war to obtain nitrate resources in peru, and Bolivia

. Bolivia lost access to the pacific,

peru lost southern territory and nitrate mine.

d. Chaco War : Bolivia vs. Paraguay (Chaco Boreal)

• Bolivian territory reduced.

e. Football War :El Salvador vs. Honduras 1969- Football War -100 hour War



f. Malvinas/Falkland Islands War :Argentina vs. Britain 1982

• Over the Malvinas/Falkland Islands

3. Why has Latin America had such low incidences of interstate war?

– Balance of Power Equilibrium

– In the early 1900s, when the United States became the major power/reduced the

likelihood of inter-state conflict especially in Central American and the Caribbean.

– When U.S. occupied Nicaragua in the early 1900s, stopped border disputes in region.

o- Balance of power relations between Chile-Brazil and Argentina-Bolivia-Peru lessened

conflict in the 20th century.

– Latin America is geographically removed from areas where major interstate wars have

taken place, i.e. Europe

4. Uti Possidetis Juris Priniciple

– The principle states that newly formed sovereign states should have the same colonial

borders that they had before independence.

5. What is a Security Community? Why is Latin America a security community?

– Security Community is a grouping of states, tied together through common values,

and trinational link, that reject violent conflict resolution( karl, deutsch)I

– In Latin America a security is the creation on institution to resolve conflict.

– For example : all latin American states joined the League of Nations in 1919,

– signed the UN charter In 1945, inter-american treaty of reciprocal assistance

– , signed the charter organization of American, and Mercosur(nuclear free zone)

6. Why has the 1982 Law of the Seas increased border conflict in the region?



· Allows countries to demand for about 200 miles of ocean territory

· The development of geographic/topographic/cartographic technology has led to both, the

resolution of and the rise of border conflicts the 1982 Law of the Seas increased border conflict

in the region

7. Moral Hazard:

· Occurs when a state’s policymakers behave recklessly, by militarizing disputes to serve

domestic political objectives, because they believe that they will not be held accountable for their


· Leaders militarize conflicts especially if they are certain that international agents will

intervene to stop the fighting before the situation escalates to war. Peru-Ecuador, Nicaragua

8. Why did tensions rise between Presidents Hugo Chavez & Alvaro Uribe Velez over the

border dispute between Colombia and Ecuador?

· On Saturday, March 1, 2008, Colombian Defense Minister Juan Manuel Santos, announced

that FARC guerrilla leader ‘‘Raul Reyes’’ had been killed in a military raid led by Colombian

military forces.

· The attack occurred in a guerilla camp in Ecuador

· Involved both air force helicopters and Colombian troops fighting on Ecuadorean soil, two

miles from the Colombian border.

· President Alvaro Uribe notified President Rafael Correa of Ecuador after the fact.

· On March 2, Ecuador responded by expressing its intent to deploy several troop battalions to

the border.

· In solidarity with Ecuador, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez ordered the mobilization of ten

tank battalions and the deployment of fighter jets to Venezuela’s border with Colombia.



· President Alvaro Uriben claimed that the laptop obtained at the guerrilla camp from the

Guerrilla leader showed Ecuadorian and Venezuelan government links to the FARC guerrilla.

· Both Correa and Chavez denied ties to FARC.

· On March 5, the Permanent Council of the OAS agreed on a resolution approved by all 34

Member countries calling the attacks ‘‘a violation of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of

Ecuador and of principles of international law’’ Chavez also shut down the Venezuelan

Embassy in Colombia and threatened to cut off all commerce

9. Did Colombian and Ecuadorian relations improve in the aftermath of tensions?

The problem was resolved publicly within a week.

•President Correa mentioned an interest to reactive a Bi-national Border Commission between

Ecuador and Colombia to address border issues.

•President Uribe called for mechanisms to enforce existing bilateral agreement.

•The relations were good and continued to be good

10. What were the economic consequences for Colombia during the 2008 border dispute?

Did Venezuela-Colombian relations normalize right after the Rio Group summit meeting of


· Venezuela’s Hugo Chavez demobilized troops, but maintained verbal attacks towards

President Alvaro Uribe, and did not normalize economic relations with Colombia for the

remainder of Uribe’s tenure.

· Colombia-Venezuelan trade relations. Venezuela is Colombia’s the second biggest trading




· Venezuela imports around $5.2 billion in Colombian goods per year and only exports $1.3

billion in goods to Colombia.

· Venezuela is in need of foodstuffs and manufactured products, so its economy absorbs 15% of

Colombian total exports and 1/3 of manufactured products.

· A shut down of trade cost around 100,000 jobs and millions of dollars for Colombia, which in

2008 had a rate of unemployment of 13%.

· With the election of Juan Manuel Santos in 2010 trade relations with Venezuela finally


11. Why was there dispute between Nicaragua and Colombia over offshore territory, how

did the dispute play out?

· 1928 – Barcenas-Esguerra Treaty b/w Colombia and Nicaragua settled that Nicaragua was

allowed its immediate coastal waters and Mangle Island, Colombia kept San Andres and


· Law of the Seas 1982 allows Nicaragua to dispute for more ocean area. Countries are allowed

about 230 miles of off-shore territory.

· 2007- International Court of Justice decided San Andres and Providencia Island were off the

table, but Nicaragua could obtain new area.

12. Why does Argentina continue to claim the Malvinas/Falkland Islands? FTAs and

Regional Blocs

1. Because of having been in control of the islands for a few years. So in their opinion, the can have

access to all those water. So Falkland should have their own independent of the Gran Britain



. What is the difference between a Free Trade Area, a Customs Union, and a Common


Free Trade Area:

Goal is to eliminate tariffs, import quotas, and preferences on most, if not on all goods, and

services produced among participant

DON’T DO: do not have a common custom tariff for trading with states outside the FTA

FTAs agree to trade on certain goods

FTA requires customs points to enforce that other countries do not bypass fta member tariffs.

No free passage of people

The goods trade have to carry a point of origin label to determine which goods are allowed to

receive preferential terms of trade under the FTA.

FTA-NAFTA- North American free trade Agreement (Canada, USA, Mexico)

Customs Union: removes tariffs, import quotas, and preferences on all goods and services

among participating countries, but they also agree on a common tariff on imports from the rest of

the world.

No customs points(free circulation of goods and people across borders(European community-


Common Market: more advanced form of a customs union because participating countries

agree on a customs union, but they also agree to coordinate currencies and economic

governmental and social policy. (European union-post Maastricht treaty 1992)

2. Central American Common Market (CACM) in 1960 a general treaty was signed by 5

Central American countries to create common market.



El salvador, costa rica nicaragua, hondura y Guatemala, Headquarter in Guatemala. Created

customs union,

CACM would set common customs tariff, eliminated tariffs among members countries,

coordinated health, labor, education, transportation, and agricultural policies.

SUCCESS : benefit el Salvador and guatemala more form the free trade arrangement that

nicaragua and Honduras

DECLINE: trades imbalances, military, dictatorship and civil war led to disputes and to eventual

break up of CACM in 1979

CACM revived after 1993 with the emergence of NAFTA,

3. Andean Community ( originally known as the Andean group/ andean pact)

● Goal to create a common market among Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia

and peru

● First established a free trade area among member were tariffs were removed by 1982

● By 1976 a common external tariff was created

● Stagnated by 1976

● Only Venezuela and Colombia signed common customs tariff in 1992.

● Process of democratization revamped the Andean community

● The act signed agreements with Mexico and Mercosur and in 2004 a free trade area

known as SAFTA went into effect( in 2006 venezuelan left the Andean community

because it joined Mercosur July 2012

4. MERCOSUR For Economic Integration Agreements know which countries are party to the

agreement, what are the general terms of the agreement, and whether the agreement is a FTA, a

Customs Union, or a Common Market?

– Mercosur created in 1991, headquarters in Montevideo uruguay.



– Goal to establish a common market

– Full member, Argentina, brazil, Paraguay, Venezuela and Uruguay

– Has a parliament but does not have any power.

– Mercosur coordinated a common customs tariff of 35% for countries outside the block but has not

been able to manage a common macroeconomic policy.


– Mercosur nations successfully signed a nuclear non-proliferation treaty which made latin America

a nuclear free zone

– Ushuaia protocol on democractic commitment signed by all members rupture in democractic

order is a cause for suspension

– Paraguay suspended for 1 on in 2012- causes his impeachment

– Venezuela was suspended in 2016 indefinitely due to maduro regime.


– an area with 12 million square kms

– 4 times the size of the European union

– About 250 million people and account for ¾ of trade in the region


– economic crises, protectionist policies , currency exchange rate

5. NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement)

– a free trade area

U.S :

Access to oil, cheap skilled , unskilled labor force from Mexico

Increase cordial diplomatic relations with Mexico

Reduce illegal immigrant from Mexico by providing jobs and reducing poverty in Mexico

Increase trade, jobs, and economic growth In the US.




To Mexico: believed that it will increase job and reduce poverty,

Modernization of Mexico economy via Neoliberal economic reforms that thought to streamline state

owned enterprise

The PRI(Institutional Revolutionary party) if Mexico entrance into Nafta Mexico to stay in power.

Nafta would strengthen Mexico economic and diplomatic prestige


: saw nafta as an opportunity to grow economically by increasing trade networks with both countries.

6. Intra Industry Trade (IIT) by 70% much of it being conducted on an intra-corporate basis.

– international trade that occurs when a country exports and imports goods within the same

industry or product group

– Inter Industry trade occurs when a country either exports or imports goods in different


7. How different is the USMCA(United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement) from the NAFTA

agreement(The North American Free Trade Agreement)?

– USMCA: a re-negotiation of nafta called by the trump administration.

– Treaty re-negotiated in 2017-2018/ pending ratification from U. S congress.

Country of origins rules:

– UMSCA reform on Nafta: automobiles must have 75% of their component manufactured

in mexico, usa, or Canada to qualify for 0 tariffs

Labor provision

US farmers get more access to the Canadian dairy market:

– The us got Canada to open up its dairy market to us farmer, issue for trump.



– Intellectual property and digital trade protection

– No section 232 tariff protection

– section 232,: impose steel and aluminum tariff on Canada, Mexico and the EU

– Sunset Clause: The agreement adds a 16-year “sunset” clause — meaning the terms of

the agreement expires, or “sunset,” after a set period of time.

8. FTAA ( Free Trade Area of the Americas.)

– Would operate like nafta does. (was a proposed agreement to eliminate or reduce the

trade barriers among all countries in the Americas, excluding Cuba.)

– Miami summit of 1994. Attended by 34 head of state of latin America and the Caribbean.

Agree to the formation of the FFAA.

– President bill Clinton felt optimistic about the FTAA but was unable to obtain domestic

support to create FTTA.

9. Why is the Hub and Spoke approach of the FTAA a major trade limitation for Latin

American countries?


HUB and Spoke approach:

hub obtains preferential treatment for a market

Spoke rest of the counties have to form an agreement with the hub and compete with other spoke

to obtain preferential treatment from hub.


november 2005 summit of the American in mar del plata, argentina ( counties failed to reach an

agreement to move FTAA forward

USA and 24 LA counties present.

10. ALBA- Alianza Bolivariana Para las Américas/Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas



– Venezuela president hugo Chavez attempt at regional integration

Different approach:

– Rhetorically focused on social rather than economic issues. To foster development in

Latin America.

– Organizing literacy and health campaign which alba believed will help poverty.

Organized a bank: for developmental project:

– schools, infrastructure, environmental projection, the promotion of latin American

culture among other objectives

– Member countries agree to depost 1% of international reseves toward the bank

– Low cost loan for oil import.

11. Pacific Alliance

– free trade agreement signed 2012

– Mexico, Colombia, peru, and chile

– the purpose of forging closer relations with the Asian pacific region, for an alliance

support of the Trans pacific partnership with other nations in Asia, but also with the USA

12. Trans Pacific Partnership OAS, CELAC, UNASUR & PROSUR

– The TPP writes the rules for global trade, rules that will help increase Made – in

America, export, grow the american economy, support well paying american jobs and

strengthen the american middle class.

1. Origins of OAS:

Has a history that dates back to 1820 when the United States declared the monroe doctrine

– policymakers wanted to create an organization based on mutual defense principle that

would prevent European incursion.



– In 1826- Simon bolivar called a meeting, where Latin American leaders met for the 1st

time to craft a mutual defense treaty.

– In 1868-1900 Latin American countries created several international doctrines on

international law

(focused on : equal sovereignty, non-intervention, and legality._

– In 1889-90 the Washington conference created a diploma between the unites state and

Latin American countries

(pan -American union in 1910, that was founded to exchanged cultural and scientific


2. What types of issues does the OAS mission focus on.

– Mediate conflict: border conflict( provide good offices so that leaders can hold private

negotiations to resolve conflict and monitors cease-fire)

– Defend democratic institution unit for the promotion of democracy( monitors elections

throughout the region and tries to ensure election irregularities are minimized

– Defend democratic institution for democracy : it allows the organization to react

collectively in case democratic breakdown

– Defense of human rights: Receives , analyses, and investigates human rights violation

– Commission of human rights:

– Security: regional international organization:

– Cold war: communism was declared as incompatible with the Inter-american principles

and most members signed the anti-communist charter I n 1948

– New security agenda (focused on the following issue: arms control, trinational drug

trafficking and terrorism, corruption, people trafficking.



3. What is the Declaration for the Defense of Democracy and what is Resolution 1080?

· Declaration on the Defense of Democracy: This allows the organization to act collectively in

the case of democratic breakdown. It is to defend democratic institutions.

· The resolution of 1080 is implemented if after 10 days the democracy in the state have not

been restored. It is a vote to suspend the country in question from the OAS and economic

sanctions are imposed. Practiced in 10 cases: Haiti 1991, Peru 1992 and 2000, Guatemala 1993,

Paraguay 1996, Venezuela 2002, Belize 2005, Ecuador 2005, Bolivia 2005, Honduras 2009.

4. Since the re-election of President Maduro during May 2018, what has the relationship

between the OAS and Venezuela been like?

– June 2018

– The OAS countries voted to suspend Venezuela invoking resolution 1080

– 18 countries voted to suspend Venezuela

– 4 countries vote against suspension ( vzla, Bolivia, Dominica, st vincent and the


– 11 countries abstained from voting

– AS of April 2019 the OAS recognized juan guaido as the president of Venezuela

– The Nicolas maduro regimes is not recognized by most countries in the region

5. What is CELAC?

– Community of latin American and Caribbean states:



– created by president Hugo Chavez.

– An alternative to the organization of American states.

– Created in 2010.

– membership all countries with the exception of canada and the usa.

– (No budget, no treaty, no headquarters, no considered an IGO(intergovernmental

organization), just meeting, tied to alba, future of this organization is not bright after

chavez death)

6. What are the origins of UNASUR? Which countries belong to UNASUR?

Comes from SAFTA: originally proposed by president itamar franco of brazil in 1993

– As a way for brazil to have more economic influence in the region and rise as a global

economic player.,

– Unasur : was an institutional way to manage the economic integration of Andean group

and Mercosur countries into an FTA.

– Seen as an alternative to the OAS, where the US has historically has greater influence

over the OAS agenda.

– In 2008 countries signed a treaty to approved the creation of Unasur sought to created a

LA economic integration but also a venue to integrate politically.

Which countries belong to UNASUR?

All South American states expect French Guiana

12 states, headquarters in Quito, Ecuador

7. What is the debate between Maximalists and Minimalists?

– Maximalist: economic, social, political integration( pushed by Venezuela, celac/alba)

– Minimalist: economic integration( pushed by brazil, Mercosur states)



8. What are some of UNASUR’s and controversies?

– Non consensus on secretary general:

– Position vacant for over a year.

– Last SG former Colombian president Ernesto samper, 2017. Argentina macric admin.

– -Nominated an SG but Venezuela vetoed the nomination.

-Does have a President Pro tempore: usually headed by a South American heads of states for a

period of a year (currently 2018-2019, Bolivian President Eva Morales is presiding)


– Venezuelan political and economic crisis:

– Lost credibility

– Lima group 2017, 14 leaders of latin American( began political isolation of Venezuela)

– Turn to right: argentina(2015), Paraguay 2016, ecuador2017, chile and brazil 2018 and

peru 2018. { newly elected center-right president has suspended membership to

Unasur( peru, chile, Colombia y brasil)

– Center to right politician want to do away with the entire project: Ecuador president lenin

moreni asked to take over newly constructed headquarters, to create a university fir

indigenous people

9. What is Prosur? Does it have a clear agenda?

– Ivan duque from Colombia and Sebastian pinera from chile created this term.

– This term is basically the creation of an integration body to replace the Union of South

American Nations.

– It is to end Venezuelan dictatorship.



– so far all states are welcome except for Venezuela. Solve economic problems.

Clear agenda ? no it has a vague agenda


1. What is “Dutch Disease” and how does it affect a country’s export sector? Why

does Venezuela suffer from this?

Dutch Disease: an economic term when a country benefit from the export of a natural resource to

such an extent that it overshadows other sectors of the economy.

During the oil crisis in the 1970s the country succumbed to the “dutch disease”. The disease is

when there is a substantial increase in foreign exchange that is accompanied by the overvaluing

of the domestic currency. So a country’s manufactured goods are more expensive and less


2. What is OPEC? And how is it an economic cartel?

– OPEC: Organization of Petroleum Exporting countries

– Is organization of petroleum exporting countries, cartel.

– How is it an economic cartel?

– An agreement between competing firms to control prices or exclude entry of a new

competitor in a market. It is a formal organization of sellers or buyers that agree to fix

selling prices, purchase prices, or reduce production using a variety of tactics

– Controls output of a limited/scarce resource, to control price; lower production ->

constant demand -> price increases

Created in 1960 by ministers of Venezuela and Saudi arabia

3. What was the significance of the 1958 Pacto Punto Fijo agreement?

Military agreed to keep neutral in exchange for improvement in salaries and equipment.



Pacto Punto Fijo was an agreement among political parties to respect electoral result to share

power( among 3 parties: AD(left side), COPEI( Center side) and URD

4. What is Partyarchy or Partidocracia? In particular why did cooperation among

political parties make political parties unresponsive to the needs of citizens?

Partyarchy or Partidocracia: The case were parties agree to cooperate and reduce conflict by

sharing wealth from oil proceeds with followers through clienteles and patronage;

Patronage: where bureaucracy staffed with party loyalties

Clientelism: patron-client relations to increase electoral rolls(vote buying or provision of

government services to list of voter)

Unresponsive: in this time, this political system produced an insulated political class that was

unresponsive to the needs of marginalized sectors, which never really benefited from oil

industrial growth( parties were viewed as politically unresponsive and corrupt, by most political

sectors)( Vzla had high income inequalities even in times of prosperity, and by the time of the

debt crist, the electorate resented political parties)

5. What series of events led to the presidency of Hugo Chavez?

– Chavistas behaved in a similar way to traditional parties, but with more authoritarian


– Chavistas uses clientelism and patronage to increase their political power in electoral


– Also use coercive and authoritarian tactics that have undermined democracy in


– Authoritarian tactics increased after 48 hours coup in 2002

6. Why is Venezuela considered an Electoral Authoritarian Regime?



Electoral Authoritarian Regime is the used of elections to mask the reality of authoritarian


– Characteristics:

– officials are chosen through election, but electoral rules are title strongly to favor the

ruling party.

– Full civil and political rights are frequently denied to opposition groups and their


– Stable regime have a strong ruling party (example, Iran, Venezuela, Russia, Zimbabwe.)

– – Venezuela decline

– Called elections for a constituent assembly( when leaders re-form de constitution)

– 1999 constitution allowed for reelections of president and six year in office instead of 4


– enhance executive powers (ley habilitante)- decree law

– unicameral congress

– in 2004 changed the supreme court-added more seats (30 to 32 seats) for the party



– Closed down most of private television channels with the exception of Venezuela

– Weak democratic institution.

7. What has been the role of the opposition during Chavez/Maduro government?

8. How did Venezuela end up with two presidents? What is Guaido’s strategy for obtaining


What is Guaido’s strategy for obtaining power?



– Juan guaido in January 4, 2019( declared that based on the current venzuelan

constitution he was the president of venezuela. he was sworn in

– Constitutional article( 233, 333, 350) the articles argued should transition, was done in

correct fashion….

Strategy: to govern until elections take place

– Call on military pledge their allegiance to Guaido

– Takeover diplomatic posts to states and international institutions that have recognized

him as the interim president

– Int’l community have complied: lima group, Organization of American states, Inter-

american development bank and several embassies.

9. What is the Lima Group and what is its strategy towards Venezuela?

– Issued a 17 declaration on feb 4 2019,

– Several LA government (recognized Guaido)[-The document says the governments of

Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia,

– Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, Paraguay and Peru “reiterate their

– recognition and support for Juan Guaidó” as interim president of Venezuela.

– Political and economic crisis ( helped)

– Established in 2017 to peacefully change regime in VZLA

10. What are the interests of Countries like Cuba, Russia, and China in Venezuela?

Cuba: received barrels of oil, in payment for doctor and military intelligence,

Cuba sells oil to increase its revenue

Russia: sold military equipment to Venezuela and get paid primarily in oil

Does not support policies of regime change

Has confirmed sending 100 Russian military personal and nuclear airplanes



Although some say that Venezuelan situation could resemble a Syria scenario

Russian officials have stated that they would not be militarily involved in Vzla

China: as part of its diplomatic policy, China has constructed a variety of infrastructural project,

Get paid in oil

Does not support policies of regime change

Both China and Russia sit at the UN Security Council

11. What is the Trump Administration’s strategy towards Venezuela?

– Strategies: is to economically sanction these countries and possibly deter other in the

international community to stop doing business with these states:

– Purpose of the objectives is to induce maximum economic pain on the people, to induce

regime change:

– Deny Venezuela power to make revenue, produce , sell oil,

– Stop shipment to cuba, freeze economic relations with cuba, cap on remittances a return

to W. bush years

– Provide fund to gaido to govern and distribute humanitarian aid.

12. Why are some sectors of Venezuelan society loyal to Maduro?

– Loyal to Maduro in power:

The consolidation of power has just begun in 2017 and 2018( with the state , local and

presidential elections)

● The Military is still with madruro

● Among poor sector maduro has lost popularity

● For this regime, the current situation is just an economic crisis that can be resolved



● Blaming the trump administration since Trump has input some sanctions toward nicolas

maduro regime. However, Nicolas Maduro said that issues like the power in Venezuela is

because of the USA, therefore, that’s how he tells the people that the problem about the

electricity is thanks to the USA .

Notable People

1. Dwight “Ike” Eisenhower : Created the Inter-American Development Bank (based on the

modernization Theory). Intervention in Guatemala , 1954. Modernization Theory : Eisenhower

and Kennedy administrations would be highly influenced by this theory. Bay of Pigs Invasion: In


2. Rafael Trujillo

3. Jacobo Arbenz :·

– Latin American leaders (whether civilian or military) received kickbacks from bankers

for approving loans.

· – Other public officials pocketed the loan money without even spending it on national

expenses and depositing back in U.S. and European bank accounts.

4. John F. Kennedy : ·

Alliance for progress

· Bay of pigs

· Cuban missile crisis

5. Richard Nixon Nixon’s Latin American tour. Nixon went to Latin America but was received

by demonstrations and protests in Uruguay, Venezuela, Peru, Argentina. This was the first



turning point. The Forty Committee: Created by the Nixon administration to remove the Chile’s

gov after Salvador Allende became president.

6. Salvador Allende: ·

= Leader of the Unidad Popular movement with the backing of socialist and communist.

· Marxist and he was elected by the people but appointed by the congress (even though the

congress was 2/3 non-Marxist)

· Nixon was upset that a socialist government had been democratically elected and in fear of the

domino effect he authorized action be taken against Allende.

7. Fidel Castro

8. Augusto Pinochet: · Members of the Allende government were rounded up and placed under

detention. He also ransacked headquarters of those parties, imposed strict curfew, dissolved labor

unions, and took over universities.· Regan embraced his regime but eventually moved to

abandon Pinochet once he was of no use.

9. Ronald Reagan

10. Jimmy Carter

11. George W. Bush

12. Barack Obama

13. Donald Trump

14. Carlos Andres Perez 1

15. Hugo Chavez/Nicolas Maduro

16. Juan Guaido



Essay Question

• Define the policy of containment and explain why the policy of containment

reaffirmed the Monroe Doctrine during the 20th Century. (lecture 10)

Truman’s doctrine of containment was offered as a policy to assist small, vulnerable nations

against superpower aggression and to promote self-determination—and, of course, to aid the

cause of world freedom

The Monroe Doctrine permits the United States to intervene actively in the affairs of Latin

American nations.

• Define U.S. interests during the Cold War—explain how the US government

organized its US-Latin American policy agenda in terms of security, economic, and

ideological interests. (lecture 10)

o For instance, explain, which interests took priority over others and why?

o How did the US government implement the policy of containment in Latin


• Use the case of Nicaragua and explain how the U.S. policy of containment played

out in this country during the Cold War. Explain how Nicaraguan leaders ultimately

resolved their country’s conflict.

• And finally, during this period 1947-1989, assess whether U.S. policymakers were

able to successfully influence the creation stable democracies in the face of the Soviet

threat. On the whole, what was the Latin American experience with democracy duri

"Looking for a Similar Assignment? Get Expert Help at an Amazing Discount!"